HISTORY OF ROBOTS
Handling operations occur in practically all production processes. At first they were carried out manually, but then the development of hardware components made it possible to relieve people from the necessity of handling heavy loads.
Fromthis standpoint the industrial robot is not something supernatural. It is only the most perfect form of the technique used in handling processes. Their purpose is not only to substitute or imitate manual actions of human beings, but also to perform production processes more quickly and better than a man.
Robots fill the gap between special-purpose automation and human actions. They have demonstrated an ability to perform work that requires simple repetitive motions and, therefore, can relieve human operators from dangerous or monotonous tasks.
Terms like "teachable" and "programme-controlled" often are applied to robots. However, robots are best understood in terms of their real capabilities. Essentially, they are “off-the-shelf” automation. It is the robot's ability to he easily taught or reprogrammed that distinguishes it from other types of automated handling equipment.
Robot is one of the very few Slav words (in this case Czech) borrowed in the different languages. It comes from the Old Slav word "robu", which means a servant. In modern Slav, the word "robotnik" means workman and is linked to the Russian word for work "rabota".
Hardware – механическая часть
Handling – манипулирование
Load – груз, нагрузка
Special-purpose – узкоспециальный
Off-the-shelf automation – серийно выпускаемые средства автоматизации
Handling equipment – манипуляционное оборудование
In term of – с точки зрения
Exercise 1: Answer the questions – Ответьте на вопросы:
- How were handling operations carried out at first?
- Where do handling operations occur?
- What is the industrial robot?
- What is its purpose?
- Why can robots relieve human operators from dangerous or monotonous tasks?
- What distinguishes robots from other types of automated handling equipment?
- What does the word “robot” mean?
Exercise 2: Characterize the industrial robot choosing the right word. – Дайте характеристику промышленным роботам, выбрав верное слово.
1. There are different terms which can be (application, applied) to robots.
2. The robot is called (teacher's, teachable).
3. The robot is also called (program-controlled, program-controlling).
4. The word "robot" means (servant, service).
5. The robot must perform (production, productivity) processes better and faster than a man.
6. The robot's (able, ability) to be retaught and reprogrammed distinguishes it from other types of (automatics, automated) handling equipment.
7. The robot is the most perfect form of (handle, handling) means.
8. Industrial robots are used to (substitute, substitution) manual actions of a human being.
9. The robot must (imitation, imitate) the manual actions of human beings.