1) actions intended to be performed in the near future
She's going tovisit her parents tomorrow.
2) planned actions or intentions
Now that they've settled in their new house, they're going tohave a party.
3) evidence that something will definitely happen in the near future
Ann is going tohave a baby.
Look at the dark clouds in the sky It's going torain.
4) things we are sure about or we have already decided to do in the near future
He's going tobe promoted. (The boss has decided to do it.)
Time expressions:tomorrow, tonight, next week / month, in two / three etc days, the day after tomorrow, soon, in a week / month etc.
7.4 Write the correct form of “going to” and use one of these verbs to complete the sentences. Use each verb once only:
finish, complain, fall off, be, miss, die,
rain, drive, work, fail
1. Look at those clouds! It is going to rain!
2. Look at the sun! It ______________ hot today.
3. Susan's not working very hard. I think she ________________ her exams.
4. He's very angry. He ________________ to the manager.
5. It's nearly four o'clock. The lesson ________________ soon.
6. I don't like travelling by plane. I _____________________ there.
7. This plan is too complicated. It (not) _____________________.
8. The President's very ill. I think he ______________________.
9. Watch the baby! She ______________________ the bed!
10. This bus is very slow. I think we _______________ the train.
7.5 Supply the “going to” or present continuous for these sentences:
1. We _______ at home tonight. (stay) – We're going to stay at home tonight./We're staying at home tonight.
2. Look at the sky. It ______ tomorrow. (rain) – Look at the sky. It's going to rain tomorrow.
3. We ________________________ at a restaurant tonight. (eat)
4. They ____________________ to Manchester tomorrow morning. (drive)
5. I ____________________ my teeth, have a wash, and go to bed. (brush)
6. Be careful with that plate! You ________________________ it! (break)
7. My parents _______________________ with us for the weekend. (stay)
8. Who _____________________________________ him the news? (tell)
9. Hurry up! We _________________________________ the train! (miss)
10. How many people ______________________________ today? (arrive)
11. They ________________________ Nick at 10 o'clock tomorrow. (see)
12. I ____________________________ to the seaside next weekend. (go)
13. Who _____________________________ to John's party later? (come)
14. Bring your hat and gloves – it ___________________ cold later tonight. (get)
15. Mary __________________________ to Barbados next Tuesday. (fly)
16. Our friends ________________________ us before the concert. (meet)
17. We ______________________ into our new house next month. (move)
7.6* Complete the text with the Present Simple or will-form of the verb in brackets:
The future of our solar system
The Sun 1)(continue) will continue much as it is today until it 2) (enter) _______ its red giant phase in 4 to 5 billion years. Then, the core 3)(grow) _______ smaller and hotter until it finally4)(finish) _______ burning the fuel in its nuclear core. When this5)(occur) _______ the core 6) (become) _______ so dense that helium fusion will begin. When the helium atoms 7) (collide) _______, they 8) (form) _______ carbon (from 3 helium atoms) and oxygen (from 4 helium atoms). When this process 9) (begin) _______ the Sun 10) (produce) _______ enormous amounts of energy. The Sun11)(grow) _______ larger as this energy 12) (increase) _______. It 13) (be) _______ over a hundred times its present size by the time it 14) (stop) _______ growing. This is why we use the term red giant. As the Sun 15) (expand) _______, it is probable that it 16) (absorb) _______ the Earth. When the Sun 17) (use) _______ up all its energy, it 18) (become) _______ a small white dwarf, and 19) (not make) _______ any more energy. After a few billion years, when it is completely cool, it 20) (be) _______ just a cold dark object.
7.7 Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the future simple or present simple:
1. I (give) it to them when they (visit) us. – I’ll give it to them when they visit us.
2. I (not send) the parcel until I (hear) from you. – I won't send the parcel until I hear from you.
3. As soon as they (phone) me, I (contact) you.
4. I (see) you before I (fly) to Paris.
5. They (send) you the money before they (leave).
6. When I (talk) to him, I (give) him your news.
7. She (visit) her parents before she (go) to the airport.
8. I (finish) this when I (be) at the office.
9. I (send) you a postcard when I (get) to Bermuda.
10. She (do) her homework before she (go) out.
11. After I (visit) the hospital, I (go) and see her parents.
12. I (phone) Mary when we (get) to San Francisco.
13. I (call) you as soon as we (sign) the contract.
14. He (not do) anything before you (tell) him to.
15. You (be) very surprised when you (meet) him.
1) recently completed actions
She has tidiedher room. (She has finished tidying her room. You can see it is tidy now. – evidence in the present)
2) actions which happened at an unstated past time and are connected with the present
He has losthis keys. (He is still looking for them.)
3) personal experiences / changes which have happened
I’ve lost 10 kilos.
4) emphasis on number
She's written threeletters since this morning. She has called on twoclients since 12 o'clock.
Time expressions:just, ever, never, already, yet (negations & questions), always, how long, so far, recently, since (= from a starting point in the past), for (= over a period of time), today, this week/month etc
Note: live, feel and work can be used either in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Cont. with no difference in meaning.
I’ve been living / I’ve livedin Rome for a year.
8.1 Read these sentences about fish. Then put the verb in brackets into present perfect simple form:
About 15% of protein eaten by humans 1) (always come) has always comefrom fish. Recently, however, the number of fish 2) (fall) _______. Several things 3) (cause) _______ this problem. Most scientists agree that governments 4) (not do) _______ enough to stop overfishing. This means that fish populations 5) (grow) _______ smaller. Many fish 6) (not reproduce) _______ fast enough to replace their numbers. The population of North Sea cod, for example, 7) (reach) _______ a dangerous level. EU laws 8) (reduce) _______ the numbers of fishing boats. As a result, many fishermen in traditional fishing ports 9) (lose) _______ their jobs. In recent years, fish in the UK 10) (become) _______ expensive, and many people 11) (stop) _______ eating it.
8.2 Use the prompts to make a question:
e.g. you / ever / see a humming bird? – Have you ever seen a humming bird?It's the world smallest bird.
1. you / ever / read War and Peace? It's one of the longest 19th-century novels.
2. you / ever / visit San Marino? It's Europe’s second smallest country.
3. you / ever / swim in the Pacific Ocean? It's the largest ocean in the world.
4. you / ever / take a trip to the Sahara Desert? It's one of the hottest places in the world.
1) past actions which happened one after the other
She sealedthe letter, puta stamp on it and postedit
2) past habit or state
He used to go/wentto school on foot
3) complete action or event which happened at a stated past time
She calledan hour ago.(When? An hour ago.)
Action which happened at a definite past time although the time is not mentioned. This action is not connected with the present Shakespeare wrote a lot of plays. (Shakespeare is now dead; he won't write again. - period of time now finished)
Time expressions:yesterday, last week etc, (how long) ago, then, just now, when, in the 1945 etc.
9.1 Complete the sentences with the past simple form of the verb in brackets:
Aztec civilization 1) (develop) developed in the Valley of Mexico, 7,500 feet above sea level. The Aztecs 2) (leave) _______ their own land of Aztlan at some time during the 12th or 13th century. They 3) (believe) _______ that Huitzilopochtli their war god 4) (want) _______ them to search for a new land. They 5) (arrive) _______ in the Valley of Mexico during the 12th or 13th century AD. They 6) (build) _______ their capital city, Tenochtitlan, on an island in Lake Texcoco. They 7) (plant) _______ trees on the island to make the land better, 8) (work) _______ hard and 9) (improve) _______ the land. When the Spanish 10) (arrive) _______ in 1519, Montezuma, the Aztec ruler, 11) (think) _______ that Cortez was a returning god. When the Spanish 12) (see) _______ the Aztecs' gold, they 13) (decide) _______ to conquer the city. Later they 14) (kill) _______ Montezuma, 15) (defeat) _______ the Aztecs and 16) (destroy) _______ Aztec religion and culture.
9.2 Complete the sentence with the past simple form of the verb in brackets. Then decide if each sentence is True or False:
1. Greek actors (wear) wore masks and special boots. True
2. Spartan children (take) _______ baths only two or three times a year.
3. The philosopher Sуcrates (drink) _______ poison and died.
4. Alexander the Great's army (go) _______ as far as China.
5. Heron of Alexandria (make) _______ a kind of jet engine.
6. The Roman Emperor Caligula's name (mean) _______ 'Happy Soldier'.
7. Roman mathematics (have) _______ no zero.
8. Most Roman girls (get) _______ married at the age of 18.
9. Roman soldiers (pay) _______ for their own equipment and food.
10. The Romans (know) _______ how to make soap and cement.
9.3* Complete the text with the past simple affirmative, negative or question forms of the verbs in brackets: