Продолжаем разбирать задание № 5 к экзамену (Часть III). Читаем внимательно тексты и отвечаем на вопросы.
Задание № 5. Answer the questions of your examiners.
Темы для устной речи билета (Speak about …)
1. Taking pilot aboard.
2. Safety system on board a ship.
3. The ship’s crew, its duties
4. Customs duties.
5. Duties of the officer on watch.
6. Responding to ship’s alarms.
7. Different types of ships.
8. Main particulars of the ship, her spaces and departments.
9. Process of anchoring.
10. Fire-fighting equipment, the fire alarm.
11. Responding to alarms “Abandon ship”, situation “Man overboard”.
12. Process of mooring.
13. Passing through narrows.
14. Shipboard training.
15. Family life. Biography.
16. Working experience. Carrier.
17. Advantages and disadvantages of the profession.
18. Prevention of pollution.
19. Safe working practice.
20. Plans for the future.
№ 5. Duties of the Officer on watch
1. The Officer of the watch is the Master's representative.
2. His responsibility is the safety of the ship.
3. The Officer of the watch keeps alert watch on the navigating bridge. He must not leave the bridge until properly relieved.
4. He must ensure all - round visual and aural lookout.
5. He is responsible for steering the correct course.
6. The Watch Officer identifies ship and shore lights.
7. The Officer of the watch is in charge of close observation of approaching vessels.
8. He watches changes in the weather, the radar and echo sounder displays.
9. Не is responsible for proper work of the navigational equipment.
10. He informs the Master of critical and dangerous situations.
11. When ship at anchor the Officer of the watch provides effective lookout.
№ 7. Different types of ships (1)
There are different types of ships. They can be divided into general-purpose 1 and special purpose 2 ships.
General purpose ships carry general cargo. Special purpose ships are tankers, which carry oil, container ships fruit, barge, cement, gas carriers, heavy lift vessels, liquefied petroleum gas carries, timber-carriers, reefers, which carry perishable cargoes (for example, a refrigerated meat, a fish), bulkers, which transport bulked cargo (a corn, a salt, a coal) and many others, which specialize in carrying particular lands of cargoes.
Tugs, barge-carriers, salvage ships are ships for specific duties.
For example, an ice-breaker conducts ships through the ice, a salvage ship gives assistance to the ships in distress, and a tug assists ships in entering and leaving ports.
One of the special purpose ships is so called Ro-Ro ships. Ro-ro means roll-on and roll-off. The ship is so called so because her bow, stern and ramp allow vehicles to drive on and off board. The Ro-Ro ships transport cars, trailers.
There is a big port in our town, where you can see a lot of different ships: dry cargo vessels, timber carriers, passenger liners, container ships. Sometimes you can see hydrofoil crafts3 and air-cushion ships4 at moorage5 of the Northern Dvina.
There are some shipbuilding and ship-repairing yards in Arkhangelsk. Solombala yard is the oldest in Russia. It was founded by Peter the First.
Nowadays some modern ships are built and repaired in Severodvinsk. One of them is for India. There are a lot of Indian ship-builders and seamen here. They work together with Russian ship-builders. As you know English is an official language in India and it is necessary to know it well to work with foreign workers and to teach them.
- general-purpose ships –универсальные суда
- special-purpose ships – специализированные суда
- hydrofoil crafts - суда на подводных крыльях
- air-cushion ships - суда на воздушной подушке
- at moorage – у места причала
Principal particulars of the ship/ Основные технич. данные судна
Length overall (o.a.) (m) – длина (наибольшая) (в метрах)
Breadth – ширина
Draught/Draft (m) – осадка (м)
Deadweight (tons) – дедвейт (т)
Speed (knots) – скорость (узлы)
Capacity – вместимость
Lifting capacity (tons) – грузоподъемность (т)
Hold capacity (cubic meters) (HC) – вместимость трюма (м3)
Net register tonnage (NRT) – чистая грузоподъемность
Gross register tonnage (GRT) – валовая вместимость
Water displacement – (D) – водоизмещение
Engine power (kw) – мощность силовой установки (Квт)
r.m.p. – revolutions per minute – оборотов в минуту
№ 7. Different types of ships (2)
On one hand, all cargo ships are divided into two types: dry cargo ships and tankers. On the other hand, cargo ships may be divided into universal ships designed to carry principal different types of cargo and specialized ships designed to carry one type of cargo (e.g. bulk cargo, timber, refrigerated goods, oil etc.). Such specialized ships as bulkers (= bulk-carriers), timber-carriers, reefer ships', tankers have long been known. Nowadays three kinds of specialized ships are very popular. One is cargo-carriers with cargo handling equipment on board for special purposes or routes, such as, for example, heavy/bulky cargo ships with derricks or cranes capable of handling single lifts over 500 tons without requiring outside assistance (these ships are also called special-purpose ships). The second trend is Roll-on/Roll-off ships, in which bow and stern doors and adjustable steel ramps permit vehicles to drive on board and drive off again, requiring only minimum dock-side facilities. The third trend is the container ship. The use of containers for cargoes has encouraged2 the design of ships specifically to carry containers. In their extreme form, as in the LASH barge-carrying ships3, the container is a 60-foot steel lighter, which can be quickly launched over the ship's stern. One (single) purpose ships designed to carry one particular kind of cargo are also widely used, the most popular of them being cellular type full container ships.
There are specialized ships designed to carry different types of cargoes (e.g. OBO ships4, PROBO ships5, CONBULKERs6 etc.). These are called combined ships. A comparatively new development is the multi-purpose ship combining characteristic features of both universal and specialized vessels.
In dependence of the cargo handling method used dry cargo ships may also be divided into: LO-LO (lift-on/lift-off) vessels where handling of cargo is effected by derricks or cranes through cargo hatches; RO-RO (roll-on/roll-off) vessels where the cargo is rolled on board and rolled off through cargo ports7 or doors in the bow, stern or sides of the ship; FO-FO (float-on/float-off) vessels where dock lift cargo handling method is used, that is floating cargo units (e.g. barges) are floated into cargo spaces (usually large holds). But there are also hybrid vessels8 where combinations of the above mentioned methods are used, such as LO-LO/RO-RO (or LO/RO), RO-RO/ FO-FO (or RO/FO-RO-Flow) vessels and others.
Пояснения к тексту
1. reefer = reefer ships — суда для перевозки рефрижераторных грузов;
2. to encourage — способствовать;
3. LASH-carrier = lighters aboard ship-carrier —лихтеровоз;
4. ОBО ship = oil/bulk/ore-carrier — нефтерудовоз, балк - танкер;
5. PROBO ship = product/oil/bulk/ore-carrier — судно, предназначенное для транспортировки нефтепродуктов, сырой нефти, навалочных грузов и руды;
6. CONBULKER = container/bulk-carrier — комбинированное судно, предназначенное для перевозки контейнеров и/или навалочных грузов;
7. cargo ports — лацпорты;
8. hybrid vessels — суда гибридного типа, сочетающие различные способы погрузки/выгрузки.
№ 18. Prevention of pollution (1)
Environment is the world around us (nature, animals, birds, insects...). Nowadays there are many environmental problems. They are littering, air pollution, water pollution, overpopulation, endangered1 animals, destruction2 of natural resources, global warming (greenhouse effect).
As my future profession connected with sea, I am going to tell you just about this problem.
Water pollution is one of the most serious problems. The vessel traffic in the World Ocean is growing. The 35% of the ocean pollution is caused by ships (discharge3 of oil and oil products, sewage4, etc.). About two-thirds of this is caused by tankers. It is necessary to prevent water pollution.
But in many places, the water has become polluted by throwing garbage overboard.
MARPOL-73\78 is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships. It was adopted in 1973 and modified by its Protocol of 1978. It is the main document for all sea nations.
According to it:
a) The ships should be equipped with technical facilities that prevent discharging oily waters or oil products into the sea.
b) There must be sewage treatment plant5 and tanks on board the ship.
c) The crewmen should be informed of the Regulation that the disposal of all kinds of litter into sea is prohibited.
d) Food wastes should be stored in special receptacles and in the port dry rubbish and garbage should be taken away by ash-boats.
e) Every ship must have the International Oil Prevention Certificates.
The ecological situation in the Arkhangelsk region is also very serious. There are several pulp-and-paper mills, sawmills which pollute the air and rivers. The northern forests disappear. Different measures are taken to improve the ecological situation in the region. There are many stations, which observe the air, the state of rivers, lakes and the soil. Industrial enterprises build air dust filters. Rivers are cleaned up.
To protect nature is everyone's duty. In order to solve6 ecological problems people can plant trees, produce less garbage, use less energy, not to dump garbage into water, use ecological fuels and oils, etc.
1. endangered [ɪn'deɪnʤəd]– исчезновение
2. destruction [dɪ'strʌkʃən] – истощение
3. discharge [dɪs'ʧɑːʤ] – слив
4. sewage ['sjuːɪʤ] – сточные воды
5. sewage treatment plant - установка для обработки сточных вод
6. solve – разрешить