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Definition of Language

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Esp<1 Esp=1

Esp>1

 
 


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Если наложить друг на друга 2 графика, обозначающие совокупный спрос и совокупное предложение одного и того же товара, получим график, показывающий одновременное поведение спроса и предложения интересующего нас товара. В какой-то точке эти кривые пересекутся.

В точке встрече Е спрос количественно равен предложению и цена Р1 выступает как уравновешивающая цена, или цена равновесия.

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При более высокой цене Р2 возникает избыток предложения над спросом. Этот избыток в результате конкуренции продавцов будет способствовать снижению цены. При цене ниже уравновешивающей (Р3) спрос выше предложения. В этом случае излишек спроса и конкуренция покупателей будет толкать цену вверх.

Важно подчеркнуть, что при цене равновесия устанавливается равенство не покупок и продаж – такое равенство существует при любой цене. При цене равновесия количество продукции, в пределах которого потребители намерены продолжать делать покупки, будет соответствовать тому количеству продукции, которое производители намерены продолжать поставлять на рынок. При цене равновесия будет отсутствовать тенденция к повышению или понижению цены.

The linguistic phenomenon always has two related sides, each deriving its

values from the other. For example :

1) Articulated syllables are acoustical impressions perceived by the ear, but the sounds would not exist without the vocal organs.

2) But suppose that sound were a simple thing: would it constitute speech? No, it is only the instrument of thought; by itself, it has no existence. At this point a new and redoubtable relationship arises: a sound, a complex acoustical-vocal unit, combines in turn with an idea to form a complex physiological-psychological unit.

3) Speech has both an individual and a social side, and we cannot conceive of one without the other.

4) Speech always implies both an established system and an evolution; at every moment it is an existing institution and a product of the past.

Language is something acquired and conventional, language should not take first place but should be subordinated to the natural instinct.

Language is a well-defined object in the heterogeneous mass of speech facts. It can be localized in the limited segment of the speaking-circuit where an auditory image becomes associated with a concept. It is the social side of speech, outside the individual who can never create nor modify it by himself; it exists only by virtue of a sort of contract signed by the members of a community. Moreover, the individual must always serve an apprenticeship in order to learn the functioning of language; a child assimilates it only gradually. It is such a distinct thing that a man deprived of the use of speaking retains it provided that he understands the vocal

signs that he hears.

Language, unlike speaking, is something that we can study separately. Although dead languages are no longer spoken, we can easily assimilate their linguistic organisms. We can dispense with the other elements of speech; indeed, the science of language is possible only if the other elements are excluded.

Whereas speech is heterogeneous, language, as defined, is homogeneous. It is a system of signs in which the only essential thing is the union of meanings and sound-images, and in which both parts of the sign are psychological.

Language is concrete, no less so than speaking. Linguistic signs, though basically psychological, are not abstractions; associations which bear the stamp of collective approval — and which added together constitute language — are realities that have their seat in the brain.


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