Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and factory ships. Many new restrictions are often integrated with varieties of fishing allocation schemes (such as individual fishing quotas), and international treaties that have sought to limit the fishing effort and, sometimes, capture efficiency.
Fishing methods vary according to the region, the species being fished for, and the technology available to the fishermen. A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day.
The other part of the gear being updated is to avoid catching certain species of animal that is unwanted or endangered. Billions of dollars are spent each year in researching/developing new techniques to reduce the injury and even death of unwanted marine animals caught by the fishermen. In fact, there was a study taken in 2000 on different deterrents and how effective they are at deterring the target species. The study showed that most auditory deterrents helped prevent whales from being caught while more physical barriers helped prevent birds from getting tangled within the net.
Commercial fishing gears in use today include surrounding nets (e. g. purse seine), seine nets (e. g. beach seine), trawls (e. g. bottom trawl), dredges, hooks and lines (e. g. long line and handline), lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps.
Exercise 4. Find the Russian equivalents for the following:
fishing methods, a huge fleet of trawlers, commercial profit, a commercial fishing enterprise, catching certain species, to limit the fishing effort, capture efficiency, to generate, an abundance of jobs, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, tuna, cod, salmon, shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid, crab, anchovy, founder, mullet, oyster, scallop, herring.
Exercise 5. Find the English equivalents for the following:
промышленное рыболовство, маленькие лодки, огромные рыболовные компании, эффективное использование, международный договор, ограничивать, помогает предотвратить, новые ограничения, перерабатывающие тонны рыбы, схемы распределения ресурсов, изобилие, суровые условия, совокупная мировая биомасса рыбы, сезон лова, промысел дикой рыбы, широкомасштабный.
Exercise 6. Complete the sentences using information from the text:
1. Billions of dollars are spent each year in…
2. The study showed that most auditory deterrents helped…
3. Many new restrictions are often integrated with…
4. Commercial fishing may offer…
5. There are large and important fisheries worldwide for…
6. The major fishing industries are not only owned by…
7. The industry has had to adapt through the years in order…
Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with prepositions of, to, in, with, from, on:
1. Commercial fishing gears … use today include surrounding nets.
2. A commercial fishing enterprise may vary … one man … a small boat … a huge fleet of trawlers.
3. The individual pay varies … season … season and depends … company's profit.
4. Commercial fishermen harvest a wide variety … fish and marine animals.
5. Many other species are fished … smaller numbers.
Exercise 8. Say if the sentences are true or false using the information from the text:
1. Physical barriers are useless to prevent birds from getting tangled within the net.
2. Fishing methods are the same irrespectively of the region and the species being fished for.
3. Commercial fishing may offer an abundance of jobs, but the pay varies from boat to boat.
4. A great number of species support the majority of the world's fisheries.
5. Large scale commercial fishing is also known as industrial fishing.
Exercise 9. Answer the following questions:
1. What do we usually understand under the term commercial fishing?
2. What does it provide?
3. What types of companies work in this field?
4. What species of fish do the commercial fishermen harvest?
5. What is the total world fish biomass at present?
6. What modern commercial fishing methods are used in practice?
7. What kinds of gear are used in fisheries?