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Complete the sentences using the following words

Accumulation of snow and ice, authorized personnel, (CCTV systems) closed circuit television, coarse dust, crew chief, damage, dust, emergency egress, fire protection specialist, flood gate, Foreman, heavy rainfall, laborer, labor staff, lighting fixtures, life-threatening emergency, mechanical specialist, official duties, overall leadership and guidance, routine maintenance, structural integrity, Supervisor, tunnel crown, Tunnel Manager, Tunnel Safety/Security Specialist, wheel

1. Tunnels must provide a high level of safety. To function properly most railway and motorway tunnels use functional systems including lighting, ventilation, drainage, traffic control, alarms, fire detectors, fire protection and suppression systems, communications and (эвакуация в случае аварии).

2. The daily operation, maintenance and inspection of a tunnel must be well coordinated and scheduled. The (уполномоченный персонал) including a tunnel manager; a supervisor; a foreman; (механик), (пожарник) and electrical specialists; an electronics or ITS specialist; a safety or security specialist and a tunnel (рабочий) are to perform maintenance and inspection.

3. The (служебные обязанности) of the Program Manager are to provide (общее руководство и управление) to the key tunnel personnel. This individual is in charge of the inspection program, reporting, and inventory. The (начальник участка) is directly responsible for all tunnel personnel, the operating condition of the tunnel, and for scheduling repairs in collaboration with the Tunnel (тоннельный мастер) and Tunnel (бригадир).

4. The Tunnel (тоннельный мастер) is responsible for the tunnel daily operation. This individual has direct responsibility for scheduled repairs and (текущее техническое обслуживание). He issues orders for tunnel closures during repairs, unscheduled events or incidents. He is also responsible for ventilation and other equipment, for making a detailed record of failures in equipment and sending this information to the Tunnel Manager. The Tunnel Supervisor schedules various working shifts for personnel and establishes the priorities between scheduled and unscheduled tasks.

5. Tunnel (обслуживающий персонал) works under the direction of the Tunnel Foreman. Their duties include daily checking of tunnel elements, roadway, and surrounding right-of-way; removing debris or icicles; taking care of routine equipment maintenance. If there is a heavy (накопление снега и льда), they apply mechanical means or a chemical de-icing to clean the track. They also remove leaves that are blown into the tunnels by winds and, compressed by trains (колеса) on the railhead, they can bring some railway sections to a halt. (Крупная пыль), predominantly sand, accumulates on the track, while fine dust sticks to the tunnel walls and (своды).

6. Safe tunnel operation requires a number of tunnel workers directed by the Tunnel Foreman. They perform the daily duties including tunnel washing and painting, drainage and drain washing, replacing of light fixtures, grass cutting, etc. They also support the Mechanical and Electrical Specialists. When a track maintenance gang identifies a track (повреждение), time is essential, and the workers make decisions and act fast.

7. The Tunnel Electrical Specialist performs maintenance functions within the tunnel to ensure that generators and motors operate properly and batteries are charged. He checks CCTV cameras, fire detection and suppression equipment, carbon monoxide detectors, electronic drive systems, etc., and makes repairs to running electrical lines, conduits and (осветительная аппаратура). Usually he works close to the Mechanical Specialist providing routine maintenance on motors and other devices.

8. Modern tunnels are equipped with electronic/ITS equipment including fire alarm systems, (система видеонаблюдения), heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control systems, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and monitoring system, environmental control systems, etc. These systems require authorized personnel with specialized skills and training. The Tunnel Electronics/ITS Specialist maintains this equipment. Specialists in this position work close by the Electrical Specialist who is involved in troubleshooting and power feeding to electronics systems.

9. The Tunnel Fire Protection Specialist deals with emergency fire situations. Usually he employs special fire fighting vehicles equipped with devices for suppressing or extinguishing fires in the tunnel. A staff member in a position of the (инженер по охране труда) must know about the tunnel’s safety/security practice and be active in emergency response providing disaster-preventing measures. In mountainous areas where snow and avalanches are in close proximity to the tunnel, the duty of Tunnel Safety Specialists is removing snow slide threats by using special explosive devices.

10. Flood events in tunnels may occur at the portals during (сильный ливень) if the pumps cannot remove the water from the tunnel. Tunnel personnel may use (отверстие для сброса паводковых вод) to prevent damage to tunnel equipment. If flooding threatens the tunnel frequently, the labour staff monitor the condition of track or roadway and the performance of tunnel equipment.

11. Seismic forces may cause noticeable damage of functional systems. Large amount of water can penetrate the tunnel through propagated cracks or loose joints. The specialists may temporarily close the tunnel until they diminish the earthquake aftershocks, remove all debris and assess the damage. If the (целостность конструкции) or functioning systems are uncertain, the tunnel must remain closed until geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical engineers complete thorough tunnel assessments.

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