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Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

DSL technology capitalises on the existing network of copper infrastructure, but allows digital signals to be carried rather than analogue. It allows the full bandwidth of the copper twisted-pair telephone cabling to be utilized.

With splitter-based services, the DSL signal is pulled out from the phone line as it enters your premises and is wired separately to a DSL modem. This involves additional hardware and installation by the service provider at the customer site. The shielded option involves no installation, but the telephone company's equipment and some of your equipment might need upgrading.

With Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), most of the duplex bandwidth is devoted to the downstream direction, with only a small proportion of bandwidth being available for upstream. Much Internet traffic through the client's connection, such as Web browsing, downloads and video streaming, needs high downstream bandwidth, but user requests and responses are less significant and therefore require less on the upstream. In addition, a small proportion of the downstream bandwidth can be devoted to voice rather than data, allowing you to hold phone conversations without requiring a separate line. DSL-based services are a very low-cost option when compared to other solutions offering similar bandwidth, so they can be made available to the customer at extremely competitive prices.

VI. Match the terms and their definitions.

ISDN a DSL system that separates the digital signals from the analogue signals
TA b Digital channel used to carry ISDN signalling and supervisory information to the network
Data channel c Device installed on a PC to allow it to receive ISDN signals
Bearer channel d Integrated Services Digital Network
DSL e Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Splitter-based services f Digital channel used to carry ISDN data
ADSL g Digital Subscriber Line

VII. Say whether the following statements are true or false.

ISDN can only operate over a special digital telephone line.
Computers connected to a satellite system do no need a modem.
Cellular networks work in a similar way to mobile phone systems.
DSL systems use analogue signals.
You need a separate line to hold normal phone conversations on an ADSL system.
DSL-based services are a very cheap option.

VIII. Choose the best answer to the following questions.

How many channels does an ISDN system usually use?
    a one channel
    b three independent channels
    c two channels
What types of wireless systems are mentioned in the text?
    a satellite and cellular systems
    b air transceivers and hand-held radio transceivers
    c mobile phone systems
What do PCs connected to a satellite system use to send data?
    a copper coaxial cable
    b optical fibre
    c satellite dish, connector hardware and software
What types of cables are used in a cable network system?
    a twisted-pair
    b copper wires
    c copper coaxial or fibre cable
Compared to the downstream bandwidth, the upstream bandwidth in an ADSL Line is:
    a larger
    b smaller
    c the same
Which type of broadband service is the cheapest?
    a ISDN
    b wireless system
    c DSL

IX. Give a short summary of the text presenting the advantages\disadvantages of the broadband communications systems mentioned in the text.

Part C

1. Read the following text and entitle it. Use notes to facilitate reading it.

intend /in'tend/ намереваться
US Department of Defense   Министерство обороны США
fee /fi:/ налог, плата
set up   установленный
triangulation /traI"xngju'leIS(q)n/ тригонометрическая съемка
latitude /'lxtItju:d/ широта
longitude /'lqndZItju:d/ долгота
altitude /'xltI'tju:d/ высота над уровнем моря
bearing /'bFqrIN/ азимут
augmentation /"O:gmen'teISn/ увеличение частоты
accurate /'xkjurIt/ точный
beacon /'bi:kqn/ маяк, радиомаяк

II. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text.

What is GPS?
What are GPS functions?
Thanks to what is a today GPS extremely accurate?
Are there any factors affecting the accuracy of GPS receivers?
What devices can improve GPS accuracy?
How are GPS satellites powered?
There are some factors that degrade the GPS signal, aren’t there?

III. Read the text and say how GPS works.

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