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Ex. 3. Analyze the following sentences and translate them into Russian

1. As a postgraduate student you must obtain some new scientific results. 2. Must we send them the results of our work immediately? – Yes, do please. 3. You must pay more attention to details. 4. The door to the laboratory must not be left open. 5. The meeting is at 10 o’clock sharp and you mustn’t be late. 6. He must be at the library now. 7. You must let him know about it. 8. You must be tired after your hard work. 9. Must I type the document? – No, you needn’t. 10. People must not cross the border without passports. 11. Everyone must go to school. 12. Must we measure the perimeter? – Yes, you must. 13. Must I really help him with the translation?


Present Have/has to, do/does not have to; Do you have to…? Future Shall/will (not) have to; Will you have to…? Past Had to, did not have to Did you have to…?
Necessity, duty, obligationдолжен, нужно, надо, приходится, вынужден
She has to find a new job. They’ve got to sell their car. I shall have to speak to them about this plan. He had to return home.
Absence of necessityне нужно, не надо
We don’t have to attend classes on Sunday. Sam won’t have to come back till April. She didn’t have to take a taxi.

Ex. 4. Analyze the following sentences and translate them into Russian.

1. Do I have to present another schedule? 2. I had to explain the rule twice to make it perfectly clear. 3. They didn’t have to change the date of the conference. 4. You‘ve got to study the relation between these two discoveries. 5. Does she have to wear glasses? – Yes, she does. 6. They will have to arrange everything for the meeting. 7. Did you have to walk all the distance to the station yesterday? 8. Do we have to define prime numbers? – No, you needn’t. 9. Have I got to make another drawing? – Yes, you have.


Present Am/is/are (not) to do… Future Am/is/are (not) to do… Past Was/were (not) to do…
Necessity, an expected, planned action, a predestined event должен, предстоит, суждено
What am I to do? The train is to come at 7. You were to stay here. He was never to see her again.
Order, formal instructionsне делай, не смей делать
You are not to say a word to anyone. No-one is to live the room.  

Ex. 5. Analyze the following sentences and translate them into Russian.

1. The students are not to take the books out of the reading-room. 2. Were they to meet at four o’clock at the University? 3. You are to write an abstract of your thesis. 4. Am I to follow you? 5. We are to have six lessons of English this week. 6. You are to give the books back to the library at the end of the year. 7. The concert was to take place yesterday. 8. Who is to meet Jack? 9. She was to finish school last year. 10. The lessons are to begin at eight o’clock. 11. Is she to make a speech? – Yes, she is.


Present Need, needn’t Future Need, needn’t Past
Necessityнужно, надо
Need I call the doctor tomorrow? (Also: Do I need to call the doctor?) (Also: The plants needed to be watered.)
Absence of necessityне нужно, не надо
I needn’t speak to her about it. (Also: She didn’t need to work as hard as me.) (Also: He didn’t need to stay in a hotel.)

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