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The problems of the simple sentence.


One of the most diff. problems connecting with the s-ce study is its definition. The German scholars decided to summarize all the existing definitions of the sentence → 301 (after that they were tired). Inspite of this great number many of them have similar features and can be distributed into 6 groups:

1. Logical definition: s-ce – is a group of words expressing a complete thought (English Descriptive or nominative grammar, 18th c.).

2. Psychological D.: s-ce- is not only a linguistic unit but also the structure of human feeling or thought. (Шахматов – Предложение – это комбинация представлений в процессе мышления.). S.Curme (an Eng. scholar): a sentence is an expression of thought or feeling by means of a word or words used in such forms and manner as to convey the meaning intended.

3. Structural D. (classical Scientific Gr-r), R.Zandvoort: a s-ce is an oral or written communication made up one or more units, each of which contains a complete utterance formed acc to a definite pattern (по определенной схеме).

4. Formal D. American Descriptive Gr-r) Ch. Fries: a s-ce is a word or group of words standing between the initial Capital letter and a mark of end punctuation or between two marks of end punctuation.

5. Phonetic D. M.Whitehall (a representative of the same school): an utterance ending with one of 2 intonation contours (fall→.! , rise→?) typical of the Eng. language.

In the majority of cases however we come across with mixed definitions where a

several features of a s-ce are reflected. M.Bryant; the s-ce is a communication in words conveying a sense of completeness containing at least one independent verb with its subject (Structural Approach).

The features which should be included into the s-ce def.-ns are:

- the s-ce is a syntactic unit;

- the s-ce is an autonomous unit which isn’t a part of a larger syntactic structure;

- the s-ce is a structurally complete unit which is based on a certain syntactic pattern or modal and contains all the component characteristics of these pattern:




S-ce should possess all the parts of the s-ce preconditioned by the verbal valiancy. Ex. He knew O. At the same time the s-ce doesn’t necessarily expressed a complete thought because in many cases it may contain the words whose lexical meaning is ambiguous and depends on the context. Ex. She did that. He knew it.

- the s-ce is characterized by its own purpose of utterance. It can be a statement, a ? or a command.

- The s-ce as an syntactic unit is materialized in a written or oral form. Acc-ly it should be phonetically or graphically shaped.

So, the s-ce is an autonomous, structurally complete syntactic unit having its own purpose of utterance and phonetically and graphically shaped.

Vinogr: sent is a basic semantic-syntactical unit of communication, grammatically organized responding to reality and expressing the relation of its meaning to reality. It’s immediate integral unit of speech built up of wds acc to a definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a contextually relevant communic. purpose. Bloomfield: sent is an independent ling form not included by virtue of any larger ling form. The main properties of a sent-ce: predication (relation btw S&P, the unity of gramm categ-s in the sent), modality (the relation btw the content of the speaking to the reality), certain str-re, intonation.

The problem of classification of sent. Sent are class. acc to many principles.

According to the structure:

1) one-member

2) two member:

-complete

-incomplete (elliptical)

All:

Extended

Unextended

The Simple Sentence (NP+VP):

-Principal parts

-Secondary parts

+Independent elements

+Detached elements

(homogeneous parts)

According to the purpose of Speaking

1)declarative

-affirmative

-negative

2)interrogative

-general

-special

-alternative

-disjunctive

3)imperative

4)exclamatory

exclamatory- most scholars think that they can’t be included into the class. acc to the aim of comm. These sent show emphasis, and every type of sent may become exclam( ex. Bat he can't do anything to you! What can he possibly do to you! Scarlett, spare me!), thus excl sent should be treated on the level of emotions.

Vinogr: sent is a basic semantic-syntactical unit of communication, grammatically organized responding to reality and expressing the relation of its meaning to reality.

It’s immediate integral unit of speech built up of wds acc to a definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a contextually relevant communic. purpose. Blokh.

sent can be monopredicative and polypredicative. The basic predic wds are expressed with the help of a finite V which is connected with S. = the predic line. The simple sent-ce is a sent with only one predicative line: I have never been there.



Some of the sent which are simple cannot be charact in this way: I took my child in my arms and hold him- semi compound sent and not simple cause 2 predic lines.

We classify sent into 2-member and 1-member sent. This is based on a diff in the main parts of a sentence. Helen sighed there are 2 main parts: Helen-the doer of the action- subject, and sighed- the action performed by the subject- predicate. Sent consisting of wd (or phrase) to denote the doer of the action and another wd (or phrase) to denote the action, are two-member sentences.

There are sent which do not contain two separate parts; in these sent there is only one main part: the other main part is not there and it could not be supplied, at least not without a violent change in the structure of the sent.- they are one member sent. Ex: Fire! Come on! Dusk — of a summer night. There is no separate main part of the sentence, the grammatical subject, and no other separate main part, the grammatical predicate. Instead there is only one main part (fire, come on, and dusk). It is a disputed point whether the main part of such a sentence should, or should not, be termed subject in some cases, and predicate, in others.

This question has been raised with reference to the Rus l-ge. Shakhmatov held that the chief part of a one-member sent was either the subject, or the predicate (for example, if that part was a finite verb, he termed it predicate). Academician Vinogradov stated that gram subject and gram predicate were correlative notions and that the terms were meaningless outside their relation to each other. He suggested that for one-member sent, the main part" should be used, without giving it any more specific name. Acc to the aim of communication- declarative (giving info)= affirmative and negative; interrogative (asking info)= general, special, disjunctive, alternative; imperative (asking for action) and exclamatory- most scholars think that they can’t be included into the class. acc to the aim of comm. These sent show emphasis, and every type of sent may become exclam( ex. But he can't do anything to you! What can he possibly do to you! Scarlett, spare me!), thus excl sent should be treated on the level of emotions.

Vinogr: sent is a basic semantic-syntactical unit of communication, grammatically organized responding to reality and expressing the relation of its meaning to reality.

The problems of the simple sent are:

definitions (200);

the problems of excl sent,

the problem of 1 memb sent, and elliptical sent,



the probl of participial sent.

There are a lot of def of sent. Sent is the main unit of communic and it conveys intonation. Sent is not just a collection of wds, cause they are built by a certain str-re. Sent is a unit consisting S and P but occasionally there are sent with other patterns.

Blokh: sent can be monopredicative and polypredicative. The basic predic wds are expressed with the help of a finite V which is connected with S. = the predic line. The simple sent-ce is a sent with only one predicative line: I have never been there.

Some of the sent which are simple cannot be charact in this way: I took my child in my arms and hold him- semi compound sent and not simple cause 2 predic lines. What is predicative combination N+Vfinite- phrase or a sentence? - Am schoolars think that it’s a phrase. Vinogradov believes that it’s not phrases but sentence bases (ex: he looked- incomplete sent). Sukhotin and Ilyish consider it phrases. Blokh- on the one hand it’s a phrase on the other it’s a sent base.

A disputed point whether the main part of a one member sent should, or should not, be termed subject in some cases, and predicate, in others. This question has been raised with reference to the Rus l-ge. Shakhmatov held that the chief part of a one-member sent was eith the subject, or the predicate (for example, if that part was a finite verb, he termed it predicate). Acad. Vinogradov stated that gram subject and gram predicate were correlative notions and that the terms were meaningless outside their relation to each other. He suggested that for one-member sent, the main part" should be used, without giving it any more specific name.

Exclamatory sentences:

Exclamatory – some don’t recognize them as a special type (e.g. Blokh)

Two types: what/how

Blokh:

“Nothing shall happen to you” in a special context may become exclamatory.

“My God! What is that?” expresses surprise, indignation

“Wait till I come” – threat, you r displeased with smth

All types of sentences may become exclamatory. That means that excl sent-s r not special type, but they characterize sent-s of other types. All sent-s can be presented as oppositions:

Primary communicative purpose:

-decl

-inter

-imperat

Emotional level:

-exclamatory

-non-excl

General conclusion: the identification of excl sentences together with other types is illogical.

One-member sent should be kept apart from two-member sentences with either the subject or the predicate omitted=elliptical sent=sent with one or more of their parts left out, which can be inferred from the context.

They can be:

-one member proper

-elliptical

One member proper: nominative &verbal

A nice room. A small house. (remarks in a play)

Verbal: imperative sentences.

Elliptical s. Can be syntagmatically restored. “I’m looking for my dog.” “Dog? What dog?”

Russian & English one-member sentences r quite different:

-Темнеет. В комнате дует. 3rd person Sg, impersonal sentence, denoting natural phenomena

It”s getting dark. There’s draft in the room.

-Идет дождь. It’s raining. (impersonal)

-Состояние Здесь душно. It’s close here.

-Сарай сожгло молнией. The shed was burnt by lightning.

-Жарко. Не спится. I’m hot. I can’t sleep.

-Пора было уходить. It was time to go.

-Зачем спешить? Why hurry?

-Послать за доктором? Shall I send for the doctor?

-Всем быть на местах. Everyone must be on his place.

-Не сметь меня раздражать. Don’t dare cross me.

Problem of participial sent.

A special type: participial sentences or participial clauses. In plays, in fiction.

Shakespeare: “Desdemona in bed, asleep. A lamp burning.”

Shaw: “London at 11:15 p.m. Torrents of heavy summer rain. Cab whistles blowing frantically in all directions”

2 ways of analyzing the sentence:

-they r expanded, one-member sentences

-build special structural type in English

Комисарова Arguments:

-such sentences function to accompany 1-member sentences proper, the only way to point the action is participle 1.

-participle 1 constitutes the temporal plane, Participle 1 serves as a predicate.

1.Simple and compound sentences.

Vinogr: sent is a basic semantic-syntactical unit of communication, grammatically organized responding to reality and expressing the relation of its meaning to reality. Compound sentence is a Composite sent (is formed by 2 or more predicative lines, it expresses a complicated act of thought – it reflects 2 or more elementary situational events viewed as making up a unity) built on the principle of coordination. In ccompound sentences, the clauses of which they consist have equal rights, none of them is below the other in rank, they are co-ordinated. The principle of combining clauses into a sent is coordination: syndetically (conjunctional) and asyndetically (non-conj: her eyes were glistening with joy, her heart was beating). The main coordinating conj are and, but, or, nor, neither, for, either, and adv.coordinators are: then, yet, so, thus, nevertheless etc.( the instruments were not checked so the day of the experiment was unknown.).

The main semantic relations btw the clauses connected coordinatively are:

1.copulative (the band played and the guests spoke in loud voices),

2.adversative (the proceedings of the simposium were closed but some of the delegates continued this discussion),

3. disjunctive (They sat out on the balcony and the moon was shining bright above the forest),

4.casual,

5. resultative (he was nervous so his hands were shaking),

6. consequential (the hostess came in and the guests rose to meet her).

The length of the comp sent is unlimited, and depends on the informative purpose of the speaker. The common type of the comp. sent is a 2-clauses construction.

Thus sent with more than 2-clauses construction are divided by Blokh into open and closed constructions. Copulative types of connections form open coordinations. In the closed constructions, the final part is joined on an unequal basis with the previous one (conj and , but). There has been discussion about the degree of independence of the clauses making up a compound sent. The older view was that they were completely independent of each other. It was supposed that these clauses were independent sent with a coord conj btw them indicating their semantic relations.

Lately the opinion has been expressed that the independence of the clauses is not complete, and that the structure of the second and following clauses is predetermined by the first. This view was put forward in the Academy's Grammar of the Rus l-ge. It is pointed out that the wd order of the second clause may be influenced by the connection it has with the first, and that the verb forms of the predicates in coordinated clauses are frequently mutually dependent.

Compound sentence – a composite sentence, built on the principle of coordination, either syndatically or asyndetically

By semi-compound sentences which contain homogeneous members are meant (the rule of identity):

S1 John smiled S2 Edna smiled. = John & Edna smiled.

S1 John smiled. S2 John paid the bill. = John smiled and paid the bill.

S1 John painted the fence. S2 The fence was green. = John painted the fence green. Traditionally we have Complex Object.

S1 John saw the girl. S2 The girl was crossing the street. = John saw the girl crossing the street. (Objective Participial Comstruction)

Ways of syndactical connection:

1. conj: and, but, or, nor.

2.adverbs: then, yet, so, thus, consequently, nevertheless, however.

When Compound sentences r combined asyndetically we can have comma or semicolon.

Copulative: addition (and, nor, as well as) *It was a nice little place and Mr & Mrs Wittler were rather proud of it.*

Adversative: contrast, contradiction (but, while, whereas, yet, still) *The room was dark, but the street was light because of the lamps.*

Disjunctive: choice (or, either…or, or else, else, otherwise) *He knew it to be nonsense or it would have frightened him*

Causal-consecutive: cause, consequence (for, so, hence) *There was smth amiss with Mr L, for he was strangely grave and looked ill.*







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