TEXT: WHAT IS AGRICULTURE?
Branches of agriculture
Utilization of fertilizers
1. Guess the meaning of the following international words and word combinations:
activity, materials, Latin, cultivation, intensification, climate, hybrid, mechanization, herbicides, biological, equilibrium, sector, economy, industry, factor, system, agronomy, technical, tractor, combine, machinery, electricity, chemical, material, chemization, mineral, organic, biological.
2. Find the correct word on the right opposite in meaning to the one on the left.
Match the words on the right (A) with their definition on the left (B).
1) to breed a) produce by cultivation
2) field b) supply (land) with water
3) agriculture c) soil management and crop
4)economy d) subdivisions of agriculture
5) branches of agriculture e) a piece of ground especially for
pasture or tillage or playing games
6)soil f) cultivation ofthe soil and rearing of
7) yield g) upper layer of earth, in which
8) agronomy h) produce or return as fruit, profit or
9) to irrigate i) management of concerns and
resources of state or business or
10) to grow g) raise (cattle etc.)
4. What are these words derived from? Notice the different suffixes, indicating different parts of speech.
Activity, cultivation, growing, meaning, breeding, achievement, developed, agronomical, rotation, various, considerably, chemical, improvement, deliveries, intensification, comprehensive, mechanization, utilization, liming, protection, development, valuable, raising, equipment, enlargement, combination.
5. Give Russian equivalents for:
crop growing, livestock breeding, sufficient good soil, to produce high yields, crop rotation, chemical fertilizers, comprehensive mechanization, plant breeding, poultry-breeding, pig-growing, nutrient substances.
Draw lines to show which words go together.
e.g. animals food produce breed
1) protection country’s plant achievements
2) application of rotation fertilizers crop
3) utilization of production natural resources agricultural
4) liming of yields high acid soils
5)agronomical zones measures climatic
6) mechanization use of full herbicides
7. Open the brackets using the verbs in Passive Voice:
1. Enough food for all the people (can grow) if there is sufficient good soil for crops to produce high yields
2. An increase in the yield of grain and other crops (to ensure) by a number of factors.
3. Field work already (to mechanize) to a very high degree.
4. Depending upon the field of application crops (to subdivide) into food crops, feed crops, industrial crops and vegetables.
5. Vegetables (to grow) everywhere where the climate is most favourable for these crops.
6. Industrial crops also widely (to cultivate) by the farmers.
8. Read the text and say why agriculture is a vital sector of economy.
WHAT IS AGRICULTURE?
Agriculture is a human activity in which people use areas of land to produce food, clothing and other necessary materials.
The word ageris a Latin word. It means a field. The word agriculturemeans the cultivation of fields and growing crops. But this is the old meaning of this word. Now it also means the use of land to breed animals.
Agriculture is the vita1 sector of the economy. Its condition and development largely determine the country’s achievements, the supply of the population with foodstuffs and many industries with raw materials.
At present there are two main branches of agriculture. They are crop growing and livestock breeding.
We do not know when people began to grow crops. It was many thousand years ago. Now crop growing is a highly developed branch of agriculture.
The soil is the basis of agriculture. Enough food for all the people can be grown if there is sufficient good soil for crops to produce high yields. So an increase in the yield of grain and other crops is ensured by a number of factors. First comes the system of agronomical measures. All farms have to introduce better crop rotation systems. Rotation systems naturally differ in various areas and under various conditions. Second goes the technical equipment of farms. Tractors, combines, lorries and other machinery will considerably reduce the time required for agricultural work. Field work has already been mechanized to a very high degree. Power stations provide farms with electricity. Third, an increase in the deliveries of chemical fertilizers and the improvement of their quality.
The enlargement of the material and technical basis of agriculture and its intensification through chemization, the comprehensive mechanization of crop and animal farming and improvement are the key conditions for increasing agricultural production.
Depending upon the soil and climatic zones effective methods should be introduced for the utilization of mineral fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizers along with the liming of acid soils. The production and use of chemical and biological means of plant protection should be increased. But all intensification factors, such as full mechanization, high application of fertilizers and extensive use of herbicides must be used in such a way as not to disturb the biological equilibrium of the soil.
Depending upon the field of application crops can be subdivided into food crops, feed crops, industrial crops and vegetables. Potatoes and other vegetables are major food crops. Vegetables are grown everywhere where the climate is most favourable for these crops.
Industrial crops are also widely cultivated by the farmers. Perhaps the most important industrial crop for textile industry is cotton. Cotton is generally grown on the irrigated lands. Flax is another important crop. Cotton and flax oils are both edible and valuable.
Livestock breeding comprises cattle-breeding, pig-growing, poultry-breeding, etc. One of the principle problems cattle-breeding faces is that of fodder or feeds. To choose the necessary feeds, rich enough in protein and other nutrient substances is not an easy thing. Increasing the production of meat, milk and wool can be achieved by raising productivity and also by increasing the heads of livestock and the amount of poultry.
9. Find information in the text to answer the following questions.
1. What is agriculture?
2. What are the key conditions for increasing agricultural production?
3. What branches of agriculture do you know?
4. How many groups are crops subdivided into?
5. What does livestock breeding comprise?
6. What problem does cattle-breeding face?
7. How can the production of meat and milk be increased?
10.Divide the text into several parts. Find the key sentences in each part. Sum up the content of the text.