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перечень вопросов письменных автоматизированных экзаменов


ШАБЛОН

 

ТВ1- теоретический вопрос

ТВ2-теоретический вопрос средней сложности

ПОЗ-практико-ориентированное задание

 

Вопросы тема вопросов тип (ТВ1,ТВ2,ПОЗ)
The notion of text, it’s peculiarities. Text and its peculiarities ТВ1
Properties of the text. Cohesion of the sentences in the text. Text and its peculiarities ТВ1
The main types of speech. Distinctive features of types of the speech. The types of speech ТВ1
General notes on Style and Stylistics.   Style and stylistics ТВ1
Distinctive features of different styles (aim, language) Style and stylistics ТВ1
Functional styles of language. Functional style ТВ1
The object of Functional Style of language. Functional style ТВ1
Emotional colored and expressive colored speech. The color of speech ТВ1
Phraseological units. The color of speech ТВ1
Neutral language means. Language of text ТВ1
Limits of the text. Language of text ТВ1
The structure of the text. Structure of text ТВ1
The types of the text. Types of text ТВ1
The Belles-Lettres Style texts and it’s peculiarities. Types of text ТВ1
The main characteristics of the language of Emotive prose. Belle letter style ТВ1
Literary text as one of the types of the Belles lettres style texts. Belle letter style ТВ1
Poetic and prosaic text as one of the types of the Belles letters style texts. Poetic and prosaic text ТВ1
Poetic and prosaic texts and their peculiarities. Poetic and prosaic text ТВ1
Discourse markers of the text and their meaning Discourse markers ТВ1
How we can define the structure of the text (introduction, topic sentence…) Defining text structure ТВ1
General usage of stylistic devices. In what style of texts we find stylistic devices mostly.   Stylistic devices ТВ1
What style text’s language is not emotive and why Characteristic of text ТВ1
What are the peculiarities of publicist style Characteristic of text ТВ1
The types of publicist style and their peculiarities Publicist style ТВ1
Characterize the official document style, its peculiarities. Official document style ТВ1
The types of official document style and their distinctions Official document style ТВ1
Types of speech and their peculiarities. Types of speech ТВ1
Science fiction style Science fiction style ТВ1
The types of science fiction style and their description Science fiction style ТВ1
The ideas, theme, problems that the author wants to show in the given text and how we can find them The structure of the text ТВ1
What is Interpretation Interpretation ТВ2
How we analyze the text Analysis of the text ТВ2
What is Irony Stylistic devices ТВ2
What is Metonymy Stylistic devices ТВ2
Analysis:What it is Analysis ТВ2
How to analyze a text To analyze a text ТВ2
Principles of analyzing a passage Passage analyzing ТВ2
What is the problem or question that motivates the author Motivation of the author ТВ2
From what context is the author writing Context of the text ТВ2
What assumptions does the author bring to the text The author’s intention in the text ТВ2
What argument is the author putting forth The author’s intention in the text ТВ2
What contradictions do you find in the text Text contradiction ТВ2
Why the author uses different stylistic devices Stylistic devices in the text ТВ2
How do stylistic devices affect your understanding of the text Stylistic devices in the text ТВ2
What evidence does the author use to support his or her point of view. Why The author’s evidence ТВ2
How is the text structured Text structure ТВ2
How does the structure affect your understanding of the theme or argument Text structure ТВ2
What rhetorical choices (concerning style or word choice, for example) does the author make? Rhetorical choice ТВ2
How do the actions and the speech of personages characterizes in the text Personage character ТВ2
Skim the article for titles, subtitles, headings, and key words. After scanning the text, how do you think the author organized the information Practice the text analysis ТВ2
Which framework did the author use to organize the information. Chronological/ Cause/Effect/ Problem/Solution/ Compare/Contrast/ Description/ Directions. Practice the text analysis ТВ2
Does the author use a combination of structures Combination of structures ТВ2
How did the author organize the text to be “reader-friendly”. Organizing the text ТВ2
Which text features helped you collect information from the article   ТВ2
How is the text structured / organized Organizing of the text ТВ2
How does the author segue from one topic to the next Author’s skill in the text ТВ2
How does the author use stylistic devices like repetition or parallelism and why does he use them Author’s skill in the text ТВ2
Why does the author avoid stylistic devices of imagery in some kind of texts, e.g. Metaphor or allusion. Author’s using stylistic devices ТВ2
What are the attitudes and the tone of the text under analysis (positive/ negative, ironical, lyrical, sad, and joyful) The tone of the text ТВ2
What mood or atmosphere is created by the author with the help of stylistic devices and the choice of verbs, nouns and adjectives. The mood of the text by stylistic devices ТВ2
Read the text carefully, think, brainstorm and decide on the functional style of the text. Prove that it belongs to the style you defined. Find out the terms that show this or that functional style and define their stylistic effect. What is a snowfall? A snowfall consists of myriads of minute ice crystals that fall to the ground in the form of frozen precipitation. The formation of snow begins with these ice crystals in the subfreezing strata of the middle and upper atmosphere when there is an adequate supply of moisture present. At the core of every ice crystal is a minuscule nucleus, a solid particle of matter around which moisture condenses and freezes. Liquid water 4 droplets floating in the super cooled atmosphere and free ice crystals cannot coexist within the same cloud, since the vapor pressure of ice is less than that of water. This enables the ice crystals to rob the liquid droplets of their moisture and grow continuously. The process can be very rapid, quickly creating sizable ice crystals, some of which adhere to each other to create a cluster of ice crystals or a snowflake.   Analysis of the text ПОЗ
Find out in the text the features of the scientific prose style. Translate the highlighted phrases taking into account the stylistic effect of the text. The Language Instinct The recent illuminationof linguistic abilities has revolutionary implicationsfor our understanding of language and its role in human affairs, and for our view of humanity itself. Most educated people already have opinions about language. They know that it is man's most important cultural invention, the quintessential example of his capacity to use symbols, and a biologically unprecedented event irrevocably separating him from other animals. They know that language pervades thought, with different languages causing their speakers to construe reality in different ways. They know that children learn to talk from role models and caregivers. They know that grammatical sophistication used to be nurtured in the schools, but sagging educational standardsand the debasements of popular culture have led to a frightening decline in the ability of the average person to construct a grammatical sentence.   Analysis of the text ПОЗ
What substyle of official documents does this fragment from the US Constitution belong to? How would you define the style (substyle) of the text? THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Article.I. Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. […] Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state,[chosen by the Legislature thereof] for six Years and each Senator shall have one Vote.   Official document analysis ПОЗ
Make detailed stylistic analysis of the discourse. How would you define the style (substyle) of the text? You already know that the main purpose of every speaker is to persuade. Read the speech below and say what the speaker wants to persuade his audience in? What is his message? Explain the stylistic effect of the text. Blood, toil, tears and sweat I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government. The resolution: "That this House welcomes the formation of a government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion." To form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at many other points–in Norway and in Holland – and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home. In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or former colleagues who are affected byTo form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at many other points–in Norway and in Holland – and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home. In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or former colleagues who are affected by the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.     Defining the style of the text ПОЗ
What creates the emotional impact of the speech? What stylistic devices contribute to it? Describe main functions and traits of the given discourse. Useful tips when taking computer science for the IB diploma With the field of information technology (IT) growing at an exponential rate, more and more high school students are choosing to pursue the subject of computer science as part of the International Baccalaureate program (IB). Taken in the grade 12 year and colloquially known as Computer Science 30 IB, this program does an admirable job of laying the framework for a successful university career in the area of computer science, which pervades many other scholarly pursuits. There are only 2 parts to the year of an IB computer science student. The first is the concept of the dossier. This takes up most of the year, and while the challenge is simple, yet a complex solution is demanded. The candidate must find a real-life problem, and then create an original program, written in Java, to solve said problem. Alas, creating a program for doing this is the easy part. The candidate must also create a write up describing almost every detail of the program, and the problem that it attempts to solve. This dossier should be very structured, with plenty of headings and screenshots to make everything as simple and straightforward for the marker. The best guide for the student is the full assignment sheet produced by IB, and each and every stage and criterion should be clearly outlined if the candidate has any desire of a 7 out of 7. Dossiers are often over 100 pages typed in length, and anything that makes it more clear, concise and easier to mark will give you a much better shot at a perfect score. If possible, ask your teacher for a copy of the IB syllabus. This will give you a more direct idea as to what the marker is looking for, and how you might go about presenting your dossier. There is no length limit to the dossier, and you may take as many pages as needed to fulfill the criteria to the best of your abilities, so putting in a little extra effort to explain things will be well worth it. When physically coding your program, it is imperative that you make liberal use of comments. Again, keep in mind that your marker will have seen hundreds of these write-ups, and writing a load of obfuscated and unclear code will severely diminish your mark. Comment every function, variable and class, and ensure that there can be no chance for the marker to get lost when marking your code.   Find out stylistic devices ПОЗ
Read the text carefully, think, brainstorm and decide on the functional style of the text. Find out the words that express emotive or expressive effect in the text. Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy. 1. Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, fellow citizens: 2. We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an end as well as a beginning, signifying renewal as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago. 3. The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe – the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God. 4. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans – born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage – and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. 5. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. 6. This much we pledge – and more.     Emotive or expressive effect in the text ПОЗ
Read the text carefully, and decide on the functional style of the text. What are the peculiarities of the metaphors used by M.L. King? What do you know about M.L. King Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s most memorable speech from his life as an activist, "I Have a Dream," was delivered August 28, 1963 before more than 200,000 people in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. as part of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The speech not only helped to galvanize the already growing civil-rights movement across the country at the time, it also became one of the most influential and inspirational pieces of rhetoric in American history. Remarkably, midway through his delivery, King suspended his pre-scripted text and began to improvise; what resulted was the speech's most recognizable section, the passage in which the words "I have a dream" are passionately repeated. Indeed, King's background as a Baptist preacher in the South instilled in him a keen awareness of the urgency of the moment and the ability to make sudden alterations to his plans. This skill helped King establish a rapport with his ever-changing audience so that he could consistently communicate on a meaningful level, a skill that was demonstrated at the March demonstration.   Deciding the functional style of the text ПОЗ
Analyze the content, the topic of the discourse. Show your specialist linguistic and literary terms. Do the translation of one paragraph, compare and contrast with your native language. Martin Luther King, Jr.: "I Have a Dream" I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves, who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.   Linguistic and literary terms ПОЗ
Read the text carefully, think, brainstorm and decide on the functional style of the text. Find out the main terms of the text that describe the functional style. Women’s Liberation 1. Since the middle of the century, women around the world have been seeking greater independence and recognition. No longer content with their traditional roles as housewives and mothers, women have joined together to create the women’s liberation movement. While the forces behind the international movement vary from culture to culture and from individual to individual, the basic causes in the United States can be traced to three events: the development of effective birth control methods, the invention of labor-saving devices for the home, and the advent of World War II. 2. The first cause of the liberation of women was the development of effective birth-control methods, freeing women from the endless child-bearing and rearing. As a result of having choice as to when and if to bear children, women acquired the freedom and the time to pursue interests outside of the home. Because of the development of birth control, women could delay having children or avoid having them altogether; consequently, women had an opportunity to acquire an education and/ or pursue a career. 3. Another event was the development of mechanized labor-saving devices for the home, resulting in more leisure time and freedom for women. For example, fifty years ago, a housewife spent an average twelve to fourteen hours per day doing housework. Due to the invention of machines such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines, and dishwashers, a housewife can now take care of her daily housework in about five hours.   Describe the functional style ПОЗ
Make the stylistic analysis of the discourse. What is the audience the text is aimed at? Age, sex, level of education, specialist market? Find out stylistic devices in the text . No Compassion for Drunk Drivers Every time I read about another innocent person slaughtered by a drunken driver, I become enraged. So when I saw the nationally broadcast PBS special on drunken driving last week, I did not react as many did. I did not think it was sensitive and forthright. I did not react as Phil Donahue, the host, did when he came on at the end and said: "I was – enormously moved by this documentary, as I’m sure you were. Not me, Phil. I wanted to kick in the set. I was plenty moved for the victims. I was plenty moved for the people who were crippled, paralyzed, reduced to vegetables or killed. But the drunken drivers themselves did not move me. I thought most got off real easy. First, let me tell you about the magnitude of the problem. Someone is killed by a drunken driver every 20 minutes in this country. On any given weekend night, on any road in America, 1 out of every 10 drivers is drunk. Which is why drunken drivers will continue to get off easy. Because so many of the lawmakers, so many of the jurors, so many of the judges have driven drunk themselves. They have a certain amount of sympathy for those who get caught.   The aim of the text ПОЗ
Comment on the stylistic analysis of the text. Analyze the headlines, fonts, italics, bold and punctuation. Comment on the functional style of the text and prove it why it is that or this style. Schedule your time carefully If you have a lot of other responsibilities outside of your studies, then there is no sense in trying to study when you know your time is going to be needed elsewhere. Plan your studying around your obligations; this could involve waiting until the children are in bed, or planning for your partner to care for them while you are studying. If there is a risk that you are going to be interrupted, then choose tasks and subjects that require less concentration. You probably need complete peace and quiet to read and take notes, for example, but doing something that involves short bursts of concentration can probably be done with some background disturbance. Let everyone know you are busy Make it quite clear to everyone that you are not to be disturbed while you are studying. This isn’t necessarily going to stop interruptions completely, but it should at least ensure that they are few and far between. Sticking to set times each day will help. Keeping your phone in a different room and switching off your messenger system online is also a good idea; if your mobile is in the room with you and you hear it beeping or ringing, you will almost certainly be tempted to see who it is. If you don’t hear it, you are far more likely to carry on with your studies and check for messages when you have finished.   Analysis of the text ПОЗ
Define the functional style of the text. Find out what stylistic devices were used. Translate special terms, compare and contrast them with your language. GOOD ADVICE FOR THE COLLEGE-BOUND 1. High school counselors need to get their hands on a little pamphlet just published by the University of Virginia. Its 22 pages contain more useful advice, guidance and perspective than all the high school baccalaureate addresses I've heard in 35 years – including those I've made. 2. The booklet, "Life after Liberal Arts," is based on a survey of 2,000 alumni of the university's College of Arts and Sciences. And, assuming Virginia graduates are reasonably typical, it should lay to rest the myth that a liberal arts education "doesn't prepare you for anything." 3. Ninety-one percent of the survey respondents, representing an array of professions, not only believe that liberal arts prepared them for fulfilling careers but would recommend liberal arts majors to students considering those same careers.   Translate special terms ПОЗ
Show the type of vocabulary used in the discourse (colloquial, neutral, literary etc.). Find out such vocabulary and decide on the best translation of them. Define the functional style of an analyzed text. HOME NEWS IN BRIEF Policeman injured by hit-and-run driver Policeman injured by hit-and-run driver 􀂾TWO MEN have been arrested after a policeman was knocked down in a hit-and-run incident that left him with leg, chest and pelvic injuries. The sergeant was attempting to flag down Vauxhall Nova in Dartford, Kent, just after midnight yesterday when it drove straight at him, police said. The car was later found abandoned in Bexley, south-east London. One of those arrested was being held on suspicion of attempted murder. Both suspects are in their late teens and form the Bexley area. The policeman is in a stable condition. Scotland Yard seeks killer on motorcycle POLICE ARE hunting a man on a motorcycle who shot dead a man in a car on Saturday afternoon. Stephen Cairns, 32, was a passenger in a Mercedes when the gunman opened fire. His twenty year- old friend, who was driving, was injured. They were attacked while driving a way from the Earl Derby pub in Kensal Town, west London. The men, both from west London, were shot at from a motorcycle, carrying two people, which then sped off. Mr Cairns died shortly after being admitted to hospital. His friend was in a stable condition.   Colloquial, neutral, literary vocabulary ПОЗ
Comment on the most significant aspects of the discourse according to the scheme of stylistic analysis. Translate the sentences where you find different stylistic devices and define what stylistic devices are used there. For Writing : Write an informative or persuasive essay on some topic that you find interesting and on which you have already done some reading or which you have already discussed with someone - perhaps an issue you are studying in another class. Such as censorship in art, the high cost of political campaigns, or obesity in children : approximate length should be four to six double spaced pages (1,000 to 1,500 words). Select a publication in which you, were you professional writer, might get such an essay published, and write its name under the title of your essay. Some possibilities could be Parade Magazine, Newsweek or Health Today. Here are some ideas : 1.Discuss the issues that are raised in censorship battles of the kind that occur in a school district when group of parents try to have a book banned. For example, groups of parents in recent years have wanted Margaret Atwood’s book The Handmaid’s Tale removed from their high school libraries because they felt this book was unsuitable for students in advanced placement courses. (Atwood’s book is a science fiction novel about a strict religious community of the not too distant future in which women have lost their Civil rights. Remember to focus on the censorship issue and not take sides in the argument. 2.Drawing on your own high school experience, identify two characteristics of a high school that you think help create a good environment for learning and healthy emotional development. As an alternative, identify two characteristics a high school that you believe create an unhealthy environment that hampers learning and character development. In either case describe the characteristics in some detail and give specific examples. Some possible places to publish. Readers’ Digest or Change (a magazine for educators).   Scheme of stylistic analysis ПОЗ
Make the extended stylistic analysis of the discourse. Decide on the functional style of the text and prove why you’ve chosen this or that functional style. Translate one paragraph taking into account the language of the style How Do Writers Write? You don't need special talent to become a good writer. How Do Writers Write? People to whom writing doesn’t come easily may assume that good writers have special gifts, that for them writing comes naturally and without much effort. Like most myths, this one has a grain of truth in it, but only a grain. The best writers are likely to be gifted as well as diligent, but most writers who write frequently and well have no magic talent. They write well because they are disciplined, because they work hard at their craft, and because they have developed a set of practices that enable them to turn out good work consistently. It may be useful to look at the ways many professional writers those people who make a living from writing go about it. Here’s what our research shows: Professional writers • Don’t’ wait for inspiration. They start writing whether they feel like it or not. • Work on a schedule, in a regular place, using the same tools. • Have trouble setting started occasionally, but they expect such delays and don’t panic. • Gather material constantly. They file clippings, observe what’s going in around them, and take notes. • Work best under deadline; if necessary, they even set their own deadlines. • Seldom know exactly what they will write; they expect to discover new ideas and insights as they work. • Plan before they write, but they keep plans flexible, subject to change as they work. • Work with an audience in mind. • Work slowly; many say they consider four to six double – spaced pages a good day’s work. • Expect to do two or three drafts of anything they write. • Often procrastinate, but they usually know how long they can put off writing and still avoid disaster.     Translate one paragraph ПОЗ
Analyse the functional style and traits of the given discourse. State the type of functional style of the text and translate the sentences with the following vocabulary that you have found out. The Faraway Night By William Saroyan All this day of fog I sat in the house remembering the way a man's life goes one way and all the other lives another, each of them going its own way, and a certain number of young people dying all the time. A certain number of them going along and dying. If you don't see them again they are dead even if it is a small world: even if you go back and look for each of them and find them you find them dead because any way any of them go is a way that kills. The bus came to Topeka and she got off and walked around a corner and I never saw her again. I saw many others, many of them as lovely as she, but never another like her, never another with that sadness and loveliness of voice and never another who wept as she wept. There never will be another with her sadness. There never will be an American night like that again. She herself may be lovelier now than then but there will never be another sadness of night like that and never again will she or anyone else weep that way and no man who kisses her will grow sick with the sickness of the love of that night. All of it belongs to a night in America which is lost and can never be found. All of it belongs to the centuries of small accidents, all trivial, all insignificant, which brought her to the seat beside me, and all the small accidents which placed me there, waiting for her.   Analyse the functional style of the text ПОЗ
Analyze the functional style of the text and prove that it belongs to your defined style and translate one paragraph taking into account the style of the text. The Faraway Night By William Saroyan This was a day of fog and remembrance of old days and old songs. I sat in the house all afternoon listening to the songs. It was darker everywhere than light and I remembered a song I sang to a girl on a bus once. For a while there we were in love, but when the bus reached Topeka she got off and I never saw her again. In the middle of the night when I kissed her she began to cry and I got c sick with the sickness of love. That was a young night in August, and I was on my way to New York for the first time in my life. I got sick because I was going my way and she was going hers. All this day of fog I sat in the house remembering the way a man's life goes one way and all the other lives another, each of them going its own way, and a certain number of young people dying all the time. A certain number of them going along and dying. If you don't see them again they are dead even if it is a small world: even if you go back and look for each of them and find them you find them dead because any way any of them go is a way that kills.   Translating paragraph ПОЗ
Comment on the most significant aspects of the discourse according to the scheme of stylistic analysis. Translate the sentences where you find different stylistic devices and define what stylistic devices are used there. From The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy By Douglas Adams This planet has – or rather had – a problem, which was this: most of the people on it were unhappy for pretty much of the time. Many solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely concerned with the movements of small green pieces of paper, which is odd because on the whole it wasn't the small green pieces of paper that were unhappy. And so the problem remained; lots of the people were mean, and most of them were miserable, even the ones with digital watches. Many were increasingly of the opinion that they'd all made a big mistake in coming down from the trees in the first place. And some said that even the trees had been a bad move, and that no one should ever have left the oceans.   Significant aspects of the discourse ПОЗ
Explain the author’s choice of vocabulary, the effect he wants to produce, and how it reflects the type of audience he is writing for. Define the functional style of the text. Translate one sentence that shows the stylistic function of the text. Argumentative vs. Persuasive Writing One should be aware of the differences between argumentative and persuasive writing, as they have different spheres of use and employ different means, though sometimes they have similar or identical goals – usually to convince you that you should change your opinions and actions. In argumentative writing, authors try to win readers' assent or agreement by proving a logical case. In persuasive writing, they try to win that assent by moving readers toward emotional or ethical agreement with their position. Argumentative writing is a very general name used to describe different texts that have one common feature – the message is conveyed to the reader through argumentation. With arguments the author attempts to show the certainty or prove the validity of his claims. He can argue for the validity of his assertions, or he can argue against others' claims, but in either situation he takes a position and tries to defend it. He tries to build a case that seems logically undeniable. Whether the author defends his/her own position or attacks another, however, the goal is to convince the readers, not to turn them away. His assertion must be limited or qualified, able to be reasonably supported – not sweeping, unlimited generalities that no one will take seriously.   Author’s choice of vocabulary ПОЗ
Describe the most significant aspects of the discourse according to the scheme of stylistic analysis. Find out the author‘s intention, the purpose of the text: to entertain, persuade, instruct, advise, inform and define the stylistic devices that describe such information. Persuasive Strategies Emotional Appeals Appeals based on emotions attempt to move readers by making them feel something strongly. Ethical Appeals With appeals based on ethics, writers attempt to move readers by their sense of right or wrong. (Ethical appeals may have an emotional base, too, for such views are often a matter of feeling or belief.) The ethical appeal often rests on the author’s moral character: readers are persuaded because they believe in the writer's sincerity and ethical convictions. Writers can also appeal to his readers' own sense of morality, calling upon them to be conscientious citizens, to think or act according to principles they know to be correct. Whether the persuasive case is chiefly emotional, ethical, or a blend of the two, writers must present it vividly, concretely – in words that arouse the reader's feelings or moral intent. To do that, writers employ a number of techniques, some of which you have seen applied to other purposes. Connotative language One of the most common persuasive strategies is to use connotative language – words rich in positive or negative meaning or association. Connotative language colors writing, gives it deeper or richer shades of meaning. It can be a powerful tool for affecting an audience's perceptions. Strong language, however, can backfire if used carelessly or in excess. Most readers will see through exaggeration, inflated claims or criticisms, and appeals to bias or prejudice. Notice the persuasive difference in these two sentences: Neutral language: We should give military aid to the rebels because it is in our best interest to do so.   Author’s intention ПОЗ
Find out what audience the text is aimed at? Age, sex, level of education, specialist market? What vocabulary can you define in the text (colloquial, neutral, literary). The Faraway Night By William Saroyan There never will be an American night like that again. She herself may be lovelier now than then but there will never be another sadness of night like that and never again will she or anyone else weep that way and no man who kisses her will grow sick with the sickness of the love of that night. All of it belongs to a night in America which is lost and can never be found. All of it belongs to the centuries of small accidents, all trivial, all insignificant, which brought her to the seat beside me, and all the small accidents which placed me there, waiting for her. She came and sat beside me, and I knew the waiting of all the years had been for her, but when she got off the bus in Topeka I stayed on and three days later I reached New York. That's all that happened except that something of myself is still there in that warm, faraway American night. When the darkness of day became the darkness of night I put on my hat and left the house I walked through the fog to the city, my heart following me like a big patient dog, and in the city I found some of the dead who are my friends, and in laughter more deathly and grievous than the bitterest weeping 80 we ate and drank and talked and sang and all that I remembered was the loveliness of her weeping because the years of small accidents had brought us together, and the foolishness of my heart telling me to stay with her and go nowhere, telling me there was nowhere to go.   Finding out the types of vocabulary in the text ПОЗ
Comment on the stylistic devices of the text (metaphor, metonymy, zeugma, pun, epithet ). Define the functional style of the text. Word Power The most effective way to build your vocabulary is described in this page on Word Power. Educational research has discovered that your I.Q. is intimately related to your Word Power. Take a standard Vocabulary test and then an intelligent test, the result in both will be substantially the same. The more extensive your vocabulary, the better your chances of success, other things being equal- success in attaining your educational goals, success in moving ahead in your business or professional career, success in achieving your intellectual potential. By using this page, you can increase your vocabulary faster and more easily than you may realize. You can, in fact, accomplish a tremendous gain in your communication skills in less than two to three months of concentrated effort, even if you go at your own speed of a page a day. Furthermore, you can start improving your vocabulary immediately and within a few days you can be cruising along at such a rapid rate that there will be an actual change in your thinking, in your ability to express your thoughts and in your power of understanding. Does this sound as if we are promising you the whole world in a neat package with a pretty pink ribbon tied around it? Yes, we are doing so. And we are willing to make such an unqualified promise because we have seen what happens to those of our students who make sincere and methodical efforts to learn more, many more words.   Stylistic devices ПОЗ
Comment on the most significant aspects of the discourse according to the scheme of text analysis. Show techniques of argumentation in the discourse: persuasion, political tract, sermon, advertisement. Earth, the third planet in distance outward from the Sun. It is the only planetary body in the solar system that has conditions suitable for life, at least as known to modern science. Basic planetary data. The mean distance of the Earth from the Sun is about 49,573,000 km (92,960,000 miles). The planet orbits the Sun at a speed of 29.8 km (18.5 miles) per second, making one complete revolution in 365.25 days. As it revolves around the Sun, the Earth spins on its axis and rotates completely once every 23 hours 56 minutes 4 seconds. The fifth largest planet of the solar system, the Earth has an equatorial circumference of 40,076 km (24,902 miles), an equatorial radius of 6,378 km (3,963 miles), a polar radius of 6,357 km (3,950 miles), and a mean radius of 6,371 km (3,960 miles). The planet's total surface area is roughly 509,600,000 square km (197,000,000 square miles), of which about 29 percent, or 148,000,000 square km (57,000,000 square miles), is land. The balance of the surface is covered by the oceans and smaller seas. The Earth has a mass of 5.976 10{sup 27} grams (or roughly 6 10{sup 21} metric tons) and a mean density of 5.517 grams per cubic cm (0.2 pound per cubic inch). The Earth has a single natural satellite, the Moon. The latter orbits the planet at a mean distance of slightly more than 384,400 km (238,870 miles).   Techniques of argumentation ПОЗ
Read the text carefully, think, brainstorm and decide on the best analysis of the text. Define the style of an analyzed text. Punctuation The word Punctuation, derived from the Latin word Pontoon, a point, means the right use of putting in Points or Stops in writing. Proper Punctuation is very important and can make all the difference between communicating your message and creating a communication gap. It serves the purpose of improving the clarity of a sentence (through the use of a full stop, comma, colon, semi-colon and brackets), indicating words that are not a statement (question mark, exclamation mark, quotation mark), showing how words relate to one another (apostrophe, hyphen) and indicating that a group of letters is an abbreviation (full stop) or that letters are missing (apostrophe). History records that improper punctuation has even made the difference between life and death. The following are the principle Punctuation marks:1. Full Stop, 2. Comma, 3. Semicolon, 4. Colon, 5. Quesion Mark, 6. Exclamation Mark, 7. Quotation Mark, 8. Hyphen, 9. Apostrophe, 10. Dash, 11. Parentheses. These are the most common Punctuation signs that new English readers would encounter on the highway to mastering English. Once you master the usage of these Punctuation marks, the written words would flow faster and more easily.   Analysis of the text ПОЗ
Comment on the most significant vocabulary (neutral, colloquial, literary) of the text. Analyze the content, the topic of the discourse. Proverbs All of us use Proverbs both in our writings and in our speech to emphasise the points that we make. The appropriate use of them indicates our depth of knowledge and our command over English language.We have to be careful in using them. Inappropriate uses of them will damage our reputation.Here the complete list of proverbs has been given for your reference. You are welcome to take note of them and use them appropriately. If properly used, proverbs will add beauty and authenticity to our writings. If Pronoun is something that substitutes a noun, a proverb should evidently come in the place of a verb. But verbs are action words. And so a proverb must relate to the action you are taking or going to take. They tell you, like the traffic signals, to pause, ponder and proceed. To this category belong Aesop's fables. Their aim is, like that of a religion, to advise and help man to lead a harmonious life - free from friction, disappointment and distress, in the policy of understanding and adjustment. Treat others as you would others unto you. Can there be anything more proper, urgent and realistic than this? Another feature of a proverb is that they are concise in construction, effective in presentation and above all easy to recollect and remember. To this category of proverbs, axioms too belong. They are self evident and undisputed truths of life. So, with this aim - the little way we can, to make our life much better and less erroneous, we are bringing out this page. The special feature of this page is that it is presented with Key-Words.   The content and the topic of the discourse ПОЗ
Read the text and define the peculiarities of the style. Define the style of the text. Slang Slang is language at its most informal, using expressions that many would consider to be grammatically imperfect and sometimes rude. Slang often used within small social groups where it can help draw and keep the group together. It changes very quickly in English. Cockney Rhyming Slang is a specialised form of slang used in the East of London. It is a kind of antilanguage where words are replaced by phrases that rhyme (sound the same): North and south = mouth Adam and Eve = believe Sometimes, the last word is dropped. Why is Cockney Rhyming Slang called so? A Cockney is a Londoner; the original definition was someone born near enough to hear the bells of Bow, which meant people in the east of the city. The word Cockney means the egg of a cockerel (male hen) and was meant as an insult, implying dishonesty in business deals by trying to sell non-existent or low quality goods, or so the story goes. The term is now used happily and proudly by the people of the east and north of London, who regard themselves as the 'real' Londoners in a very cosmopolitan city where a lot of the population have come in from other areas of the country or abroad.   The peculiarities of the style ПОЗ
Make text analysis of the discourse (stylistic devices, grammar). Define the style of an analyzed text. Effective Public Speaking Effective Public Speaking is an important skill in communicating knowledge and expressing ideas to groups of people. It is a primary medium for presenting and selling your products and ideas. Being able to verbally communicate effectively to other individuals or to groups is essential in school, business, as well as your personal life. There is need for people who can effectively make presentations and speak to others. Your knowledge and skills in this area can help advance your career or improve your business. Also, if you are good or really enjoy public speaking, you may even choose speaking as a profession. Skilled Public Speaker will make thing happen even during the time of crisis. Many speakers have brought about great changes by the sheer effect of their effective speeches. You too can be one of those few who have left behind a trail of history which will keep them in the memories of the generations to come. Here is the list of items which you should keep in attention while you develop your public speaking skills. What Public Speaking means to you? What is Stage Fear? How do you get rid of your stage fear? Prepare for a Speech Formulae for Effective Speeches : The Sir Winston Method; Borden Formula; Know Your Audience;   Stylistic devices and grammar ПОЗ
Describe the style of the text and traits of the given discourse. Find out special linguistic and literary terms and translate them. Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension means understanding what the author of the passage says in the passage. You have to connect the meaning of the first sentence to the following passages so as to understand the underlying meaning of the whole passage. This requires motivation, power of concentration and good study techniques. You have to develop interest in the world affairs. This will sharpen your power of words. Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning, middle and end. Often, the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details. Also, look for transitional words, phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. Just reading a book once is not enough. To develop a deeper understanding, you have to highlight, summarize and review important ideas. Good readers monitor their attention, concentration and effectiveness. They quickly recognize if they've missed an idea and backup to reread it.   Style of the text ПОЗ
Read the text carefully, think, brainstorm and decide on the best analysis of the text. Define the style of the text and describe its peculiarities. From The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy By Douglas Adams Far out in the uncharted backwaters of the unfashionable end of the western spiral arm of the Galaxy lies a small unregarded yellow sun. Orbiting this at a distance of roughly ninety-two million miles is an utterly insignificant little blue green planet whose ape descended life forms are so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea. This planet has – or rather had – a problem, which was this: most of the people on it were unhappy for pretty much of the time. Many solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely concerned with the movements of small green pieces of paper, which is odd because on the whole it wasn't the small green pieces of paper that were unhappy. And so the problem remained; lots of the people were mean, and most of them were miserable, even the ones with digital watches. Many were increasingly of the opinion that they'd all made a big mistake in coming down from the trees in the first place. And some said that even the trees had been a bad move, and that no one should ever have left the oceans.   Defining the style of the text ПОЗ
Describe the most significant aspects of the discourse according to the scheme of text analysis. State out the type of style of the text. History of English Language English is a West Germanic language that developed from Old English, the language of the Anglo-Saxons. English, having its major roots in Germanic languages, derives most of its grammar from Old English. As a result of the Norman Conquest, it has been heavily influenced by French and Latin. From England it spread to the other countries such as United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and others, particularly those in the Anglophone Caribbean. As a result of these historical developments, English is the official language in many countries such as Pakistan, Ghana, India, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, and the Philippines. Mandarin Chinese and Hindi have more native speakers than does English; however, the geographic distribution of Mandarin and Hindi is more limited than that of English. English also is the most widely spoken Germanic language. English spread to many parts of the world through the expansion of the British Empire, but did not acquire lingua franca status in the world until the late 20th century, when American culture began to overpower that of others on the global scale. Following World War II, the economic and cultural influence of the United States increased and English permeated other cultures, chiefly through development of telecommunications technology. Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields, professions, and occupations, education ministries throughout the world mandate the teaching of English.   The most significant aspects of the discourse ПОЗ

 








 

Составители: магистр., ст. пр. Мамырбаева М.З. подпись _______________

к.п.н., Ешимбетова З.Б. подпись _______________

 

 







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