1.1 Уровни языка и изучающие их дисциплины.
1.2. Язык и речь. Парадигматические и синтагматические связи в языке. Язык в синхронии и диахронии.
A language is a hierarchy, a system of units and rules according to which these units can combine. Speech is the act of using a language. A text (oral or written) is the result of speech.
The system of any language includes several levels: phonetic, morphemic, lexical, syntactical (+ suprasyntactical level). Each level comprises units of its own order:
- phonemes (realized in speech as sounds)
- morphemes (realized as morphs)
- lexemes (realized as word forms)
- sentences (realized as utterances)
And each level is studied by a separate branch of linguistics:
- phonetics, phonology
- morphemics, word-building
The lexical level can be described as the central level of language and words as the basic units of language: on the one hand, words are made up of phonemes and morphemes; on the other hand, they themselves make up bigger units of speech - sentences and texts.
II. Слово как основная единица лексической системы. Семасиология.
1 Слово как предмет лексикологии. Границы слова.
2 Значение слова. Лексическое и грамматическое значение.
3. Денотативное и коннотативное значение слова.
4. Полисемия. Основные оппозиции в структуре многозначного слова.
5. Причины и типы изменения значения слова.
1. The term lexicology is of Greek origin (from lexis – word and logos - science). Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups.
Lexicology can be general and special. General lexicology is the lexicology of any language, part of General Linguistics. Special lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language (English, German, Russian, etc.).
Unlike a phoneme, a word is a two-facet unit (двухсторонняя единица языка), that has both form and content.
The form (sound form, звуковая оболочка, план выражения) is a certain arrangement of phonemes, a certain arrangement of morphemes and a unifying lexical stress.
The content(content plane, meaning, semantics – значение, план содержания) – consists of gram. and lex. meaning, with which this cluster of phonemes is associated in this given language.
Unlike morpheme, the word is a positionally mobile unit that can occupy different places in the utterance.
Unlike a word combinationthe word is a global, indivisible unit (глобальная, целостная единица, нерасчленимая). It is indivisible both formally and semantically.
Definition of word by I.V. Arnold:a word is the smallest significant unit of a given language capable of functioning alone and characterised by positional mobility within a sentence, morphological uninterruptability and semantic integrity