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I. Базовые понятия языкознания. Язык как система

1.1 Уровни языка и изучающие их дисциплины.

1.2. Язык и речь. Парадигматические и синтагматические связи в языке. Язык в синхронии и диахронии.

A language is a hierarchy, a system of units and rules according to which these units can combine. Speech is the act of using a language. A text (oral or written) is the result of speech.

The system of any language includes several levels: phonetic, morphemic, lexical, syntactical (+ suprasyntactical level). Each level comprises units of its own order:

- phonemes (realized in speech as sounds)

- morphemes (realized as morphs)

- lexemes (realized as word forms)

- sentences (realized as utterances)

And each level is studied by a separate branch of linguistics:

- phonetics, phonology

- morphemics, word-building

- lexicology

- grammar

The lexical level can be described as the central level of language and words as the basic units of language: on the one hand, words are made up of phonemes and morphemes; on the other hand, they themselves make up bigger units of speech - sentences and texts.

II. Слово как основная единица лексической системы. Семасиология.

1 Слово как предмет лексикологии. Границы слова.

2 Значение слова. Лексическое и грамматическое значение.

3. Денотативное и коннотативное значение слова.

4. Полисемия. Основные оппозиции в структуре многозначного слова.

5. Причины и типы изменения значения слова.

1. The term lexicology is of Greek origin (from lexis – word and logos - science). Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups.

Lexicology can be general and special. General lexicology is the lexicology of any language, part of General Linguistics. Special lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language (English, German, Russian, etc.).

Unlike a phoneme, a word is a two-facet unit (двухсторонняя единица языка), that has both form and content.

The form (sound form, звуковая оболочка, план выражения) is a certain arrangement of phonemes, a certain arrangement of morphemes and a unifying lexical stress.

The content(content plane, meaning, semantics – значение, план содержания) – consists of gram. and lex. meaning, with which this cluster of phonemes is associated in this given language.

Unlike morpheme, the word is a positionally mobile unit that can occupy different places in the utterance.

Unlike a word combinationthe word is a global, indivisible unit (глобальная, целостная единица, нерасчленимая). It is indivisible both formally and semantically.

Definition of word by I.V. Arnold:a word is the smallest significant unit of a given language capable of functioning alone and characterised by positional mobility within a sentence, morphological uninterruptability and semantic integrity

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