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The word ‘program’ has come into use to refer to the sequence of instructions which a computer is an exact (точный) sequence of instructions that is uses to solve a problem. It usually consists of subroutines or subprograms which are portions of it.

Programming for automatic computer requires a good deal of knowledge, common sense, and training. Specially, programming requires: (1) understanding the operations of a business or the steps of a scientific calculation; (2) understanding the best way for having a computer carry out these operations and steps; (3) arriving at a good sequence of commands for the computer to solve the problem; and (4) adequately translating these commands into the computer language.

Programming for the computers has several forms. One form is the construction of compiling programs or compilers – which use the computer to take subprograms out of a library and link (соединять) them together appropriately (соответственно) so as to solve a new problem. A second form is the construction of programs called interpreters (интерпретатор) which accept instructions in certain (определенный) standard words and translate these words into a machine language, so that the machine “knows” what the words “mean”. A third form is the development of common (обычный) languages for automatic programming for problems, so that any problem when expressed in such (такой) a language can be given to any automatic computer, and the computer will translate the common language into its own (собственный) instruction code, and then solve the problem.


1. a good deal of – много

2. common sense – здравый смысл


Grammar. Revision of Modal Verbs.

Text A. The Basic Principles of Programming (continued).

Text B. Kinds of Programs.

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