Сослагательное наклонение Многофункциональность глаголов should, would Особенности пассивного залога Глаголы to involve, result in, result from
Text 12A. The International Space Station
Text 12B. Benefits of Building the ISS
Text 12C. Living Aboard the Space Shuttle and the ISS
Text 12D. Time Travel and New Universes
Упражнение 1.Переведите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в сослагательном наклонении.
A. 1. Would you like to come with us? 2. Would you be so kind
as to tell me how to get to the Red Square? 3. Could you tell me the
way to the main building of the University? 4. Would you mind
giving me your dictionary for a minute? 5. Would you be kind
enough to pass me the text-book? 6. I'd like to thank you for your
help. 7. He'd like to meet you.
B. 1. You are the only person she would listen to. 2. The mate
rial in that book is very much out of date. The book must have been
written a long time ago. 3. He speaks English well. He must have
lived in the United States for a long time. 4. You could have done it
in a different way. 5. It's strange he is not here. However, he might
have forgotten all about it. Or he might have come while I was out.
6. For long journeys in private cars one could use automatic guid
ance systems. 7. One laser beam could carry all the radio, TV and
telephone messages simultaneously.
C. 1. Mary wishes she could drive a car. 2.1 wish that, for just a
day, I were President of the United States. 3.1 wish I had not spent
so much money yesterday. 4. I wish when a boy I had studied
French instead of English. 5. John wishes he had been a mechanical engineer. 6.1 wish I had a car. 7. I wish you had mentioned this fact to me before.
D. 1. If he were better educated, he would get the job. 2. Were I
you, I should speak to him about it. 3. I would have called you if I
had had your telephone number. 4. Had she felt better, she would
have gone with them. 5. If you watched a laser operate, you might
be surprised at the simplicity of a device capable of such power. 6.
«If I had had a chance to live my life again, I should have tried to
combine the study of the history of art, philosophy and science.»
«But then you wouldn't be good at either.» «No, you are probably
right, I'd be a dilettante.»
E. 1. K. Onnes found that it was necessary that a mercury wire
be cooled to —265 °C for electrical resistivity to disappear. 2. Tsiol-
kovsky proposed that liquid propellants should be used for space
travel. 3. Recently it has been improbable that superconductivity
should appear at an unbelievable temperature of 98 К in a special
ceramic material. 4. The great speeds and high resistance of air de
mand that new hyperliners be built without windows. 5. It is essen
tial that a superconductor should be a solid material and it is
necessary that it should be cooled to -273 °C. 6. It was natural for
the ancient Greeks to suppose that the stars, planets, the sun and
the moon move round the Earth in space. 7. It is possible that a
compound should become a superconductor even if the chemical
elements constituting it are not. 8. Copernicus suggested that the
Sun and not the Earth should be at the centre of everything.
Упражнение 2.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на союзы in order that, so that, lest.
1. A special system is being developed so that drivers could see after dark. 2. Aircraft designers tend to replace conventional metal alloys by new composite materials in order that an aircraft structure should be lighter. 3. Some materials are cooled almost to —273 °C so that they should become superconductors. 4. Great attention is paid to ecological problems all over the world so that air in supercities should be clean. 5. You must put down this formula lest you should forget it. 6. Metal parts are tested for defects lest they should fail in operation. 7. Students must work hard lest they should fail at examinations. 8. All kinds of safety devices for motor cars are being developed lest accidents should occur. 9. A hypersonic craft will require complicated cooling measures lest it should burn.
Упражнение 3.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности страдательного залога.
1. International cooperation, especially in the field of space and science, may be spoken of as a long-standing tradition. 2. The «night vision» system is being worked at in many design bureaus. 3. The invention of an internal combustion engine was followed by the appearance of a motor car as we know it today. 4. Any flying vehicle is acted upon by aerodynamic forces. 5. The improvement of our working conditions and life is influenced by the achievements of scientific and technological progress. 6. New developments in the field of superconductivity are much written about at present. 7. The invention of a steam engine was followed by the first industrial revolution. 8. The neutron is not influenced by a magnetic field. 9. The appearance of a jet engine was followed by a tremendous increase of aircraft speeds. 10. The problems of interplanetary flight are dealt with in the latest magazine.
Упражнение 4.Переведите предложения с глаголом to involve и его производными (занимать, быть занятым, вовлекать, связанный с этим).
1. While on their last space flight French cosmonauts were mostly involved in carrying out scientific experiments. 2. A program to establish an International Lunar Base may involve many nations. 3.The struggle for the protection of Lake Baikal has shown the true position of the organizations involved. 4. To understand the operation of computers one must understand the principles involved.
Упражнение 5.Переведите производные слова согласно образцу:
префикс multi- (много-) multi-room — многоместный, multi-national — многонациональный multi-stage rocket, multi-purpose, multi-functional, multi-lateral, multiplex, multimedia, multi-ton vehicle.
Упражнение 6.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
international station [,inta'naejanl 'steijan], civilization [,sivilai'zeijan], orbit ['o:bit], assembly [a'sembli], shuttle ['JXtl], routine [ru:'ti:n], partner ['pa:tna], multi-national ['mAlti-'naeJanl], majority [ma'djonti], astronaut ['aestrano:t], mission ['mijan], official [a'fijal], object ['obdjikt], visible ['vizibl], module
['modju:l], process ['prauses], ambitious [aem'bijas], project ['procfeekt], control [kan'traul], commercial [ka'ma:Jal], biotechnology [,bai9utek'nolad5i].
Упражнение7. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов.
launch [lo:ntf], extension [iks'tenfan], research [n'se:tf], facility [fa'siliti], crew [kru:], alternately [o:rta:natli], expectancy [iks'pektansi], Venus ['vi.nas], awesome ['o:sam], Canada ['kaenada], Japan [dja'paen], Brazil [bra'zil], European [juara'pi:an], behave [bi'heiv], trouble [ЧглЫ], citizen ['sitizn], dozen ['dAzn], opportunity [,opa'tju:niti], basic ['beisik], purpose ['pa:pas], investigation [m,vesti'geifan], adventure [ad'ventja], promote [pra'maut], require [n'kwaia], billion ['biljan], enterprise ['entapraiz], advertise ['aedvataiz].
СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ
addv — прибавлять, присоединять
advertisev — рекламировать attractv — привлекать, притягивать
behavev — вести себя, работать
broadа — широкий deliverv — доставлять enterpriseп — предприятие establishv — учреждать, организовывать
explorev — исследовать, изучать
facilityп — сооружение, оборудование
fitv — соединять, подгонять flightп — полет followv — следовать (за) henceadv — следовательно
implementationп — выполнение, осуществление investigationп — исследование lastv — сохраняться, длиться launchv — запускать maintainv — обслуживать, содержать
missionп — задача, полет notev — отмечать opportunityп — благоприятная возможность
predictv — предсказывать promotev — способствовать, содействовать
properlyadv — должным образом, правильно spaceп — пространство, космос stayv — оставаться, жить supplyv — снабжать, обеспечивать
troubleп — неисправность, повреждение
alternately— поочередно at least— по крайней мере
Что вам известно о проекте создания Международной космической станции? Как осуществляется проект на данный момент? Прочитайте текст, проверьте ваши ответы, переведите.
The International Space Station
The International Space Station (ISS), the most complex and expensive structure that has ever been launched and built in space, is expected to be a permanent off-planet extension1 of human civilization. When completed, it will be a multi-room hotel and research facility orbiting the Earth every 90 minutes. By that time, resupply and assembly flight by shuttles or rockets will have become routine.
The Russians and Americans are partners in this international enterprise. The three-person multi-national crews will be alternately composed of two Americans and one Russian followed by a Russian majority. Later a six or seven-person crew will occupy the station. Some astronauts may stay on the ISS up to 187 days, but there are no plans yet for longer missions. The official life expectancy of the station itself is 10 years, but it should last much longer.
Five times the size of the Russian space station Mir, the ISS will be one of the biggest objects in the night sky, looking like a supersize Lego set2, almost as long as a football field. Only the Moon and Venus will be bigger and more visible.
The fifth-generation station's complexity is as awesome3 as its size. Built by a partnership of 16 nations, the ISS will consist of 36 modules and hundreds of individual elements that come from all over the world. The station involves the most technologically advanced nations — Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, Brazil, and 11 European nations. There will be many interconnected parts from so many countries that it would be impossible to predict how they would interact.
Hence, it is very important that all of these elements made by different suppliers should fit together properly and work exactly as planned. But even if all the parts fitted perfectly, the assembly process itself in orbit would be risky. The space station is flown while it is being constructed and each new building block added might change the way the station behaves in flight, which could result in serious trouble.
The ISS may be the world's most ambitious engineering project in history, but it could not have been realized without previous extensive experience in operating the Russian Mir space station. Mir
was a great achievement. Russia learned how to build and maintain complex structures in space. Mir also gave citizens of more than a dozen countries their first opportunity to explore space. It should be noted that Mir has proved to be the perfect training ground for the ISS. For more than a decade, at least two humans were always in low Earth orbit. That is why it was planned that Russia would supply and deliver 12 modules for the future station, each being a key module among its 36 ones. They are: the basic power module, the control, the life support, the service modules and others.
What is the purpose of the ISS? It is a political program as well as a science program. This program is no longer only about conducting scientific investigations in the absence of gravity, or about learning how to build a massive project weighing 400 tons in orbit, or about establishing the base for a future trip to Mars. The ISS is more than merely the next great adventure of the space age. It is also about promoting international cooperation and creating thousands of peacetime jobs for highly skilled workers and engineers.
The implementation of the broad international program would require more than $40 billion. Some space experts would like to attract commercial users such as, e.g., biotechnology companies in order that the cost of the station should be lowered. And some specialists have even suggested that the station be used for advertising and Hollywood filmmaking.
Notes to the Text
1. off-planet extension — внепланетное продолжение
2. Lego set — конструктор Л его
3. is awesome — поражает, внушает благоговение, трепет
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 8.Определите различные функции глагола should, переведите.
1. It should be said that the importance of Mars studies is acknowledged by all. 2. Reliability of every vehicle should be paid great attention to during the production process. 3. It is required that an airplane should be well balanced dynamically. 4. Should there be even a small deviation (отклонение) in the velocity, the space vehicle would pass the planet. 5. K.E. Tsiolkovsky suggested that man-made rockets for the future space flights should use liquid-propellant engines. 6. We were told that we should take part in the discussion. 7. One should not forget that electricity is the most important source of energy at present.
Упражнение 9.Определите различные функции глагола would, переведите.
1. Halley predicted that the comet would appear at regular intervals of 75 years. 2. If you were on the first manned space station your task would be to study the stars and planets including Earth. 3. Some materials cooled to proper temperature would conduct electricity practically without any resistance. 4. In the future it may be possible to build a dirigible with a metal hull that would carry hundreds of passengers round the world. 5. In 1883 Tsiolkovsky wrote that rocket would be the only means able to reach outer space. 6. Popov would make his experiments with radio although the government was not interested in the work. 7. We tried to start the car, but it would not go. 8. We know that a body in motion would continue to travel in a straight line unless some force were applied. 9. Without gravity we would not be able to walk in an upright position. 10. Non-equatorial regions of Mars would be difficult and expensive to reach and explore.
Упражнение 10.Найдите предложения, где should является модальным глаголом и где глаголы would, could и might выражают сослагательное наклонение.
1. It is essential that international cooperation should be as productive as possible. 2. Research and technology should provide the basis for a better life. 3. Military uses of a space station could complicate international cooperation since there are several neutral countries among the participants. 4. It is desirable that international space cooperation should give significant economic advantage for the countries involved. 5. NASA agreed that Canada would develop a remote manipulation system for the space Shuttle. 6. It should be pointed out that Japan space programmes are based on close government-industry cooperation. 7. The craft to be launched would essentially be used as a service module for space stations. 8. Typical missions of a new system might include the assembly of space structures. 9. Exploring Phobos would be a difficult problem because of its small gravity field. If an astronaut threw a stone right ahead, it would orbit the entire moon and hit him in the back of the head. 10. Such a vehicle could be operational by the beginning of the next century. 11. One should know that the broader the basis for utilizing a space station is, the better the prospects for economic efficiency of developing it are. 12. After the Challenger tragedy the military experts insisted that a new Shuttle should be built. 13. It was reported that the appearance of photon computers could be expected.
Упражнение 11.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности страдательного залога.
1. In mechanics the study of kinematics is followed by the study of dynamics. 2. A gas may be looked upon as the vapour of a liquid with a very low boiling point or very great vapour pressure. 3. Lead is very slightly acted upon by the oxygen of the air. 4. The works of Tsiolkovsky were followed by a number of very important works in the field of astronautics. 5. The production of special metallurgical alloys is seldom influenced by gravity. 6. This article describes design characteristics which are followed by the description of the results of the experiments. This description is followed by a discussion of nontechnical aspects of the lunar programme proposed.
Упражнение 12.Переведите предложения с глаголом to result с различными предлогами.
1. It is well known that automation results in higher labour productivity. 2. The first manned space flight has resulted from the great achievements in Russian science. 3. This experiment resulted in the discovery of several new properties of the composite material, 4. A release of atomic energy results from a very complex process. 5. World War II resulted in the victory of the USSR, the US and Great Britain. 6. Such experiments usually result in obtaining new information. 7. The motion of an electron results from a force acting upon it. 8. The growing intensity of air traffic has resulted in the automation of its control. 9. Newton's famous work «Principia» resulted from 40 years of experimental work.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение 13.Определите, к каким частям речи относятся слова.
gravity, peaceful, permanent, consequence, subatomic, dominant, relative, relativity, flexible, apparently, celebrity, novelty, connection, complicate, desirable, significant, utilize, pressure, famous, involvement, significance, weightlessness, eaten, recorder, supression, useless, dense, density, depth, damage, shorten.
Упражнение 14.Образуйте существительные от слов.
appear, explore, prepare, prior, important, implement, transit, propose, create, lighten, encode, structural, useful, discuss, grow, store, differ, electronic.
spacecraft, to call, artificial, significance, area, man-made, satellite, purpose, complicated, importance, space vehicle, explorer, aim, to guide, to offer, researcher, investigation, to incorporate, sophisticated, to propose, to determine, exploration, to define, to gather, to control, to collect, to name, to include, district, moon;
special, upper, unmanned, natural, last, manned, unequal, conventional, distant, first, lower, civil, equal, inefficient, military, near, efficient, artificial.
Упражнение 16.Переведите предложения с глаголом to involve и его производными.
1. NASA began looking for the way to involve other countries in its post-Apollo space programme. 2. International involvement in the space programme raises a number of questions. 3. The international programme has involved Russia, Canada, Japan and some developing countries, as well as both individual European countries and various European space organizations. 4. There exists a clear trend towards increased international involvement in those uses of space which could be economically beneficial. 5. The aim of the experiment involving dogs, monkeys and other animals aboard Kosmos satellite was to study the way zero gravitation affects the living organisms. 6. An efficient radiator is capable of warming a large room, the process involved is called convection. 7. Work with computers and other sophisticated electronic devices involves two different types of construction: hardware and software.
Упражнение 17.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции слова only.
1. You are the only person who could help us in solving this problem. 2. The International Academy of Astronautics including nearly one thousand scientists and engineers from 50 countries is the only organization which can plan technical efforts on an international scale. 3. Only through cooperation on a world-wide scale could space technology be improved. 4. Effective communication across national borders appeared to be the only way for space science to develop successfully.
Упражнение 18.Найдите глаголы-сказуемые в страдательном залоге, переведите.
Dolly Madison was born in South Carolina while her parents were visiting there. She was soon taken to Virginia where she was educated. She was taught by her Quaker parents to say «thee» and «thou» for «you». Dolly was married to John Payne who died a short time afterwards from yellow fever. Several years later she was married to James Madison, a brilliant lawyer. When Thomas Jefferson was elected President of the US, James Madison became Secretary of State. Mr. Jefferson was a widower, so Dolly was often invited to preside at the White House. When James Madison was elected president, Mrs. Madison was the hostess of the White House on all occasions. People from everywhere were impressed with her sincerity and her love for humanity.
Упражнение 19.Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их. beaten, steal, carrying out, learnt, ate, slept, fly.
Упражнение 20.Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.
Exploration experts suggest that the tiny moon Phobos should be used as a perfect place for gas refilling station. Some scientists think Phobos rocks to contain crystalline ice. If one heats them, it will be possible to produce water. The latter could be divided into hydrogen and oxygen which are necessary components for rocket propulsion. Such a fuel supply would greatly reduce the amount of weight that must be delivered from the Earth for manned missions to Mars. Thus, it might be possible for spacecrafts to leave the Earth for Mars carrying no return fuel. To get home, they should simply fill up at Phobos.
CONVERSATION Exercise 1.Answer the questions.
1. What is the ISS? (the most complex and expensive structure in space and research facility orbiting the Earth) 2. What will it look like when completed? (a supersize Lego set, almost as long as a football field) 3. What is its size compared with Russian-built Mir space station? (five times the Mir station size) 4. What modules is it expected to consist of? (36 modules) 5. How many countries are involved in the project? (16 countries) 6. What methodology is being
used to build the ISS? (the same methodology as for Mir but on a larger scale) 7. What is the purpose of the ISS? (to promote international cooperation and create peacetime jobs for highly skilled workers and engineers)
Exercise 2.Make a sentence out of the two parts.
1. The Russians and Americans are equal partners
2. It is suggested that
3. It is very important
4. The multi-national crew will occupy
5. Space experts expect
6. The cost of the station is likely
7. The ISS is more
1. to be more than $40 billion.
2. that all individual elements coming from different suppliers all over the world should fit together properly.
3. Russia deliver 12 key modules for the station.
4. the official life of the station to be 10 years.
5. the station and stay on it up to 187 days.
6. than merely the next great adventure of the space age: it is a political program as well as a science program.
7. in the implementation of this massive engineering project weighing 400 tons.
Exercise 3.Read and learn.
Hello, Ann. How did you happen to come to California?
Hello, Peter. How are you? My father got a job here. It is so exciting to meet you here. I've not seen you since you graduated from the University.
I'm working on a newspaper. I cover the space research problems. Now I study the application of space satellites for scientific purposes.
I think that the best application of satellites is for military purposes.
You are absolutely wrong. The most promising field of application of satellites is the scientific one.
Oh, Yes, I know satellites look down on everything: the clouds, forests and oceans, the winds, ice on the sea. But don't forget spy (шпион) satellites.
P.: Spy and weather satellites gather data for forecasting. The Japanese have a satellite studying the ocean; European and Russian satellites produce radar images of the ground; an American satellite is studying the upper atmosphere.
A.: It seems to me that the era of satellites has passed. You see, the Japanese have already delayed the launch of their earth observing mission.
P.: Yes, they did, because of cost. The most effective way to
gather data is not always with a big satellite. A.: Have you met my elder brother Mike? P.: Of course, I have. We played in the same football team at the
college, though he is about three years older than me. A.: He is five years older than you. He takes part in the research
programme at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. They
are developing now a small cheap satellite. It would carry
three simple instruments to measure clouds, water vapour and
surface temperature. P.: Oh, really. I think, that such researches make sense, and help
develop a single Global Climate Observing System.
A.: Such a system could change the world or at least see the world changing.
Exercise 4. Comment on the following statement.
Space exploration ought to be abandoned (откладываться) until more important problems of mankind have been solved.
One point of view : Space exploration is very expensive; food production is far more important than Mars studies or Moon walks; it is immoral to spend huge sums of money on space exploration while millions of people suffer hunger (голод); space exploration is useless anyway because we can't colonize other planets; it would be much better to colonize, for example, the Sahara before trying to colonize the Moon or Mars; mankind must not waste its resources.
Л contrary point of view: Space exploration is of great significance for scientific and technological development; space exploration gives man new knowledge that he can use for other purposes; we may find 10,000 things to do on the ISS that nobody has thought of or even imagined.
Exercise 5.Conduct a scientific conference on: «The potential of space exploration for peaceful purposes».
Use texts 12 A, B, C, exercise 3 (Satellites) as a basis for the preparation of oral talks and discussion. Useful words and phrases of scientific communication are given in exercise 5 (see Lesson 10 «Conversation»).