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Exercise 1. Comprehension questions. 1. What meanings of the word “culture” do you know?

1. What meanings of the word “culture” do you know?

2. What do you mean?

3. What does biologist mean?

4. By whom was the term “culture” first used?

5. What is culture?

6. Why is it a fragile phenomenon?

7. What layers of culture do you know?

8. What "human cultural" traits do you know?

9. What do you know about Edward Tylor?

10. What do you know about Johann Herder?

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Exercise 2. Give Russian equivalents to the following.

1. refer; 2. behavior; 3. scientist; 4. however; 5. range; 6. pattern;
7. publish; 8. knowledge; 9. law; 10. morals

Exercise 3. Give English equivalents to the following.

1. привычки, обычаи; 2. – приобретать, достигать; 3. член общества; 4. инструмент, орудие; 5. постоянно; 6. существовать, жить;
7. в наших умах; 8. язык; 9. просто; 10. слой, пласт

Exercise 4. Match the following words and expressions from column A with those in column B.

A B

1. to distinguish a. поднимать

2. to share b. удерживать

3. to raise c. различать

4. to retain d. ссылаться

5. to refer e. делить

6. to publish f. публиковать

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
           

Exercise 5. Fill in empty spaces in this table.

Culture is the full range of learned human … patterns.
The term “culture” was first used · by the pioneer English … Edward B. Tylor · in the book … · published in … .
Tylor said that culture “includes · … · … · … · … · … · …
Culture is a · … human tool for survival, · …. phenomenon.
There are three layers or levels of culture · … · … · …
Classification of the people according to age or gender · … · … · … · …
Classification of the people based on marriage and relationships · … · … · … · …
Adolf Bastian developed … a … model of culture.  

Exercise 6. Translate the following expressions and words.

1. full range; 2. full hour; 3. in law; 4. law and order; 5. the law of gravity; 6. law school; 7. law-book; 8. law-breaker; 9. lawful; 10. lawgiver; 11. lawless; 12. member of society; 13. Member of Parliament; 14. in our minds; 15. to live with one’s own mind; 16. the great minds of the world; 17. to my mind; 18. levels of culture; 19. sea level; 20. to rise on higher level; 21. raising children in some sort of family; 22. to raise one’s glass to smb’s health; 23. to raise the eyebrows; 24. to raise a question; 25. to raise from the dead; 25. common background and experience; 26. what’s his background; 27. to keep in the background; 28. published in 1871; 29. the products of culture; 30. body of cultural traditions; 31. diverse societies; 32. cultural traits




Exercise 7. Complete the puzzle.

1. a                
2. v                
3. q                
4. m                
5. p                
6. k                
7. c                

1. the letters of a language in a special order

2. a small place where people live, not so large as a town

3. something you ask someone

4. a wrong thought or act

5. an ornamental arrangement of shapes and colours

6. a room used for cooking

7. have power over someone or something






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