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Text and vocabulary exercises. VIII. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:

VIII. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:

неравномерно распределено; и промышленное, и сельскохозяйственное; космические корабли; судостроение; прибрежные воды; обильно снабжена; смешанные леса; с самой высокой плотностью; явно континентальный; в девять раз больше чем; горные цепи; умеренный; характеризуемый (различимый) крайностями; покрытый травой; большое разнообразие растительности; омывается; скотоводство; горнодобывающая промышленность.

IX. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box:

endowed bountifully Midlands density plane unequally vegetation indispensable mountain chains

1. There are two great ____ in Russia. 2. There are several ____ on the territory of the country. 3. The climate in the _____ is moderate. 4, No nation has been as ____ supplied with rivers as Russia. 5. There is a great variety of ____ in Russia: tundra, taiga …, 6. Russia is one of the most richly ___ nations in the world with mineral wealth. 7. There are immense deposits of iron, ore and other elements ____ to modern industry.8. The population is quite ____ distributed with the highest ____ in the European part.

X. Answer the following questions.

1. Does Russia have a long and complex story? 2. Where is Russia located? 3. Russia is a parliamentary republic, isn’t it? 4. What is the population of Russia? 5. Where is the highest density of population in Russia? 6. What countries does Russia border? 7. How many time and climatic zones does Russia cross? 8. How long is the longest river in Europe? Name it. 9. What are the main mountain chains on the territory of Russia? 10. In what part of Russia can you see true steppe, which is grass-covered and almost treeless? 11.Is Russia an industrial or agricultural country? Prove your answer. 12. Are there any problems in Russia at present? 13. Why can Russia become one of the leading countries in the world again?

XI. Read and translate the text below to learn about the main city of Russia.


Moscow, the capital of Russia, is a major political, economic, cultural and scientific centre of Russia. Moscow is situated on the River Moskva in the western region of Russia. The population of Moscow is over 10 million people. Moscow is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, an ancient fortress that is today the residence of the Russian President and of the executive branch of the Government of Russia.

Moscow was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy. It was first mentioned in the records dated back to the year 1147. In 1712 Peter the Great transferred the capital to the newly built St. Petersburg, but Moscow remained the cultural and economic centre of the country. In 1918 the Soviet Government decided to make Moscow the capital again.

The present day Moscow is a unique city, its architecture combines the features of both Oriental and Western cultures. The most spectacular place of sightseeing is the Kremlin, the symbol of Russia. The Savior Tower (Spasskaya Bashny) is the symbol of the Kremlin. It was built in 1491 and got its name from the icon of Savior’s (Spas). Moscow is also well known as the site of the Saint Basil’s Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes. The city is known for many other historical buildings, museums, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. There are more than 80 museums in Moscow, among them the unique Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the State Tretyakov Gallery and many others.

Moscow is a city of science and learning, there are over 80 higher educational institutions in the city. Its leading industries are engineering, chemical and light industries.

XII. Find in the text the words or phrases which mean the same as:

главный; древняя крепость; исполнительная власть; была впервые упомянута; перенес столицу; объединяет особенности; восточная, азиатская культура; наиболее впечатляющее место; образовательные учреждения; ведущий.

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