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The grammatical category of mood. Different conceptions.


H. Swift: Moods in this way – grammatical forms expressing different relations between subject and predicate.

J. Curm: Moods changes in the form of the verb to show the voices way in which the action or state is sort of by the speaker.

Виноградов: Категория наклонения выражает, установившееся, говорящим лицом отношение действия к действительности.

Ахманова: грамматическая категория глагола, выражающая отношение содержания высказываемого к действительности.

Модальность – понятийная категория со значением отношения говорящего к содержанию высказывания и отношение содержания высказываемого к действительности.

Виноградов: Mood expresses the relation to the action to reality as stated by the speaker. Mood may represent actions, actually taking place or conditional or imaginary or desired.

English verbs are characterized be the binary opposition: imperative - nonimperative

The problem of the Subjunctive mood.

Functional parts of speech.

Scholars who support formal parts of speech say that theses words denote only relation or connection between the notional words. And have nothing to do with extra linguistic reality. This words only connect words and sentences. Whereas notional parts of speech denote actions and other extra – linguistic reality. However the examples are given evidently prove the fact the prepositions and conjunctions do posses lexical meaning although very general.

Prepositions still may have lexical meaning but very general. They are invariable, may be preceded by nouns, statives, numerals, gerund, adverbs, pronouns. They are never separate parts of speech.

Conjunctions the form is invariable, form connects with the words.

Semantic relation between the clauses in compound sentences.

Copulative (=addition): and, nor, neither…nor, not only…but

Adversative (=contrast): but, while, whereas, however, only, nevertheless, still, yet

Disjunctive (=choice): or, else, or els, either…or, otherwise

Causal – consecutive (=cause and consecutive): for, therefore, accordingly, hence

Resultative (=result): so, for, thus, that’s why

Sometimes relation and connection are difficult to distinguish: the old man his son. An old man and his son.

Particals: only, exclusively, even, just

Modal words: meaning is rather evident, sometimes denote qualities

Interjections: express emotions, represent noises.




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