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B) What is the Congress?

The Congress of the United States is the legislative (lawmaking) and oversight (Government policy review) body of our National Government, and consists of two Houses - the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Task 4. a) How many Members does each State have in the Senate and House of Representatives?

Each State, under the Constitution, is entitled to two Senators, each serving a 6-year term and at least one Representative, serving a 2-year term. Additional house seats are apportioned on the basis of State population.

B) What are party Leaders?

The political parties in the House and Senate elect Leaders to represent them on the floor, to advocate their policies and viewpoints, to coordinate their legislative efforts, and to help determine the schedule of legislative business. The Leaders serve as spokespersons for their parties and for the House and Senate as a whole. Since the framers of the Constitution did not anticipate political parties, these leadership posts are not defined in the Constitution but have evolved over time. The House, with its larger membership, required Majority and Minority Leaders in the 19th century to expedite legislative business and to keep their parties united. The Senate did not formally designate party floor leaders until the 1920s, although several caucus chairmen and committee chairmen had previously performed similar duties. In both Houses, the parties also elect assistant leaders, or "Whips." The Majority Leader is elected by the majority party conference (or caucus), the Minority party by the minority party conference. Third parties have rarely had enough members to need to elect their own leadership, and independents will generally join one of the larger party organizations to receive committee assignments. Majority and Minority Leaders receive a higher salary than other Members in recognition of their additional responsibilities.

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