Рисунок – drawing.
Пропорция – proportion. The correct, most useful, or most attractive relationship between things.
Перспектива – perspective. A method of showing distance in a picture by making far away objects smaller.
Мазок – stroke, touch, dash, dab.
Офорт – etching [et∫ıŋ] – the art of producing drawings or design on plates of metal, glass, etc. by the action of acid; a print made from this.
Гуашь – gouache [gua:∫] – a way of painting with opaque colours ground in water and mixed with a preparation of gum; a pigment of this sort.
Глиптика – glyptics [`glıptıks] – the art of carving or engraving designs on gems, etc.
Гобелен – tapestry [`tæpıstrı] – a heavy cloth woven by hand or machinery with decorative design and pictures and used as a wall hanging, furniture covering, etc.
Литография – lithography [lı`θɔgrəfı:] – a process for printing patterns, pictures from a piece of stone or metal. A lithograph – a picture made by lithography.
- Инталия – intaglio[ın`ta:lıou] – the art of making a picture, decoration by cutting a pattern deeply into the surface of a hard substance, esp. a jewel.
- Камея – cameo [`kæmıəu] – a piece of jewellery consisting of a raised shape or figure on the background of a small fine flat stone of a different colour.
Масляная живопись – oil painting – the art of painting in oil colours, a colour or paint made by grinding a pigment in oil, esp. linseed oil.
Мозаика – mosaic [mə`zeıık] – the art of making pictures or designs by inlaying small bits of coloured stone, glass, tile, etc. in mortar.
Панно – panel [`pæn`l] – any picture very much longer than it is wide.
Пастель – pastel [`pæstl], crayon [`kreıən] – a small stick of a solid chalklike substance made of powdery colouring matter used for drawing; a picture drawn using this substance; any soft light colour.
Пленэр – plain air [pleınεər] technique – the art of painting in the open air to depict atmospheric changes.
Темпера – tempera [`tempərə] – the paint in which pigments are mixed with egg, esp. egg yolk.
Фреска – mural painting, fresco [`freskou] – a picture made by painting in water colour on a surface of a wall, made of wet plaster.
Экслибрис – book plate – a label, often specially designed, pasted in a book to identify its owner.
Эстамп – print: an image created by pressing a special piece of wood, metal, etc. with a raised design on it onto paper or another surface.
3. Выразительные средства (законы) живописи
The expressive means (laws) of painting.
Грунт (левкас) – ground, priming. A colour used as a background or first layer on a painting, drawing, etc.
Импасто - impasto. A way of painting with thick layers of paint.
Колорит – colouring, colour-scheme. A combination of colours used together somewhere.
Композиция – composition. The arrangement of the parts of a work of art so as to form a unified, harmonious whole.
Лессировка – finishing touches. To provide the finished picture with a final polishing or coat of transparent paint.
Ракурс – foreshortening. To represent some lines of an object as shorter than they actually are in order to give the illusion of proper relative size in accordance with the principles of perspective.
Светотень – chiaroscuro [kıa:rəsk`juərou], light and shade. The way that light and dark areas create a pattern in drawings and paintings.
Сфумато – sfumato (итал. – «дымка»). The method invented by Leonardo da Vinci. The painting characterized by the lack of any rigidity of contour and the most subtle transitions between tones and shapes.
4. Художественные объединения и школы.
Art Societies and Schools.
Барбизонская школа – Barbizon School: a group of French romantic landscape painters (Millet, Corot, Rousseau) who settled in Barbizon, a village in N. France in the mid – 19th cent.
Бубновый валет – the Jack of Diamonds: a society of Moscow artists (1910-1916). Members of the society (Konchalovsky, Kuprin, Lentulov, Mashkov, Falk) combined Cezanne, fauvism, cubism and Russian lubok in their works.
Венецианская школа – Venetian School: one of the main art school with Venice as its centre in the period of Renaissance (15th – 16th cent.) and in 18th cent.; characterized by poetic perception of the world, man, and nature with special attention to the colour-scheme of paintings.
Голубая роза – the Blue Rose: a society of Moscow artists (Kuznetsov, Matvejev, Saryan, Sudejkin, etc.) in 1907. Characteristic features are flat and stylized form, decorative and symbolic tendencies.
Кукрыниксы – Kukrynicksy: a group of Russian painters and graphics (Kupriyanov, Krylov, Nick. Sokolov) famous for their satirical posters, political caricatures which they created together.
Мир искусства – the World of Art: a society of Petersburg artists (1898-1924) to which belonged Diaghilev, Bakst, Lancere, Somov, Ostroumova- Lebedeva, etc. Proclaimed ideas of art for art’s sake, symbolism, and poetics.
Ослиный хвост - the Donkey's Tail: a society of young Russian artists (Larionov, Goncharova, Malevich, Taflin, etc.) in 1912. Denied traditions of classical art; combined the elements of icon painting, Russian lubok and primitivism in their works; claimed for the freedom of experiments.
Передвижники - Peredvizhniki: the association of movable exhibitions established in 1870 in Petersburg led by Kramskoy: united young progressive artists of realistic trend.
Прерафаэлиты - Pre-Raphaelites[ pri:ræfi:ə’laits]: a society of artists led by Rossetti, Hunt, and Millais, formed in England in 1848 to encourage painting with the fidelity to nature that they considered characteristic of Italian art before Raphael.
Синий Всадник – the Blue Rider (нем. Blauer Reiter): a society of expressionist artists in Munich (1911-1914), to which belonged Mark, Kandinsky, Klee, etc.