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Pre-text Exercises. I.Practise the reading of the following words:


I.Practise the reading of the following words:

discovery [dɪs'kʌv(ə)rɪ], investigation [ɪnˌvestɪ'geɪʃ(ə)n], decisive [dɪ'saɪsɪv], radar ['reɪdə], nucleonics [ˌnju:klɪˈɔniks], unprecedented [ʌn'presɪd(ə)ntɪd], sensitivity [ˌsensɪ'tɪvɪtɪ], structure ['strʌktʃə], automation [ˌɔ:təˈmeɪʃ(ə)n], adequate ['ædɪkwɪt], cybernetics [ˌsaɪbə(:)'netɪks].

II.Make sure if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:

electron, revolution, physical, cathode, atom, structure, civilization, exploitation, diode, microscope, vacuum, radio, diagnosis, energy, industry, industrial, generate, instrument, social, combine, base, control.

III.Give the initial form of the following words:

followed, developed, electrons, produced, communications, locked, expanding, pouring, receivers, combined, enabled, applied, generating, given, offers, leading, senses.

IV. State to what parts of speech the following words belong:

discovery, investigation, physical, rapidly, directly, receiver, communication, decisive, shaping, computer, sensitivity, extension, structure, visible, optical, significant, industrial, treatment.

V. a) Form verbs adding the suffix -en to the given adjectives, translate them:

Example:fast – крепкий

to fasten – прикреплять

bright, dark, sharp, wide, less, broad, deep, short, weak, hard.

b) Form verbs with an opposite meaning adding the prefix un-. Translate them into Russian:

Example:to cover – покрывать

to uncover – раскрывать

to close, to load, to tune, to tie, to fasten, to charge, to balance, to fix, to lock, to pack, to bend.

VI.Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary:

to follow, to lead, to apply, to develop, to combine, to produce, torepresent, to give, to examine, to receive, to offer.

VII.Define the functions of the Infinitive in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian:

1. Our task is to studywell. 2. The idea to usethis substance is not new. 3. He described the device to be usedin all modern systems. 4. The apparatus to be assembledis very complicated. 5. To translatethe text without a dictionary is difficult. 6. To makethe experiment you must improvethe device. 7. The engineer wanted to be sentto the conference. 8.Lodygin was the first to inventthe electric lamp. 9. In order to solvethese problems, scientists must makemany experiments. 10. To carry outthis research work requires special knowledge.

VIII.Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the functions of the Infinitive:

1. We shall consider a very simple example in order to explainthis phenomenon. 2. Computer science is to be regardedas a new discipline. 3. It is quite necessary for him to makea great number of calculations to solvethe problem. 4. We know silver to bethe best of conducting materials. 5. Michael Faraday had little chance to getan education. 6. An attempt to forma theory of such systems was made by Professor W. 7. We expect the article to be publishednext year. 8. I believe him to have changedhis plans. 9. Radio and television continue to develop and to find wider application in science and industry. 10. I saw the workers repairthe machine. 11. The fastest way to detectan artificial satellite is by radio. 12. We watched the robot performmany operations. 13. We are to studythe main laws of physics. 14. A computer has to be used to makethese calculations.

IX.Change the following complex sentences given below according to the example and translate them:

Example:The process which will be describedin this article is known as ionization. The processto be describedin this article is known as ionization.

1. The method which will be usedis reliable. 2. The results which will be receivedwill be published next month. 3. The data that are to be obtainedwill be of great interest. 4. The measurements that must be madeshould be accurate enough. 5. The experiments which will be demonstratedare closely related to our research. 6. The problem that must be solvedis very difficult. 7. The work that must be doneis of great importance. 8. The method that will be usedwas developed in our laboratory. 9. The equipment that is to be installedis very effective. 10. The instrument which will be usedmust make precise measurements.

X.Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive Constructions:

1. The professor made the students repeat the experiment. 2. We want them to receive this information as soon as possible. 3. We know the first atomic power station to have been built in the Ukraine. 4. The only thing for you to do is to use a microscope. 5. A material which allows electricity to flow through it is called a conductor. 6. We did not see them make this experiment. 7. For him to take this decision was not easy. 8. We think this work to be completed in a month. 9. Our professor wants us to use these data. 10. It was easy for our mechanic to repair this device. 11. Electronics enabled scientists to take pictures of the moon. 12. For the decision to be correct all facts must be considered.

XI.Change the following complex sentences according to the example. Translate them into Russian:

Example: Yablochkov was the first who realized the advantages of the alternating current.

Yablochkov was the first to realize the advantages of the alternating current.

1. Franklin was the first who developeda new theory of electricity. 2. Lomonosov and Franklin were the first who madetheir experiments in the field of atmospheric electricity. 3. The engineer was the last who madethe report at the conference. 4. The famous scientist was the first who provedthis theory. 5. Newton was one of the first who studiedlight. 6. Lodygin was the first who invented the electric lamp. 7. These metals were the first that were used in industry. 8. This scientist was the first who developedthe new process. 9. These devices were the first that were tested in our laboratory. 10. This radio station was the first that was built in our country.

XII.Match up the words which have an opposite meaning:

a) to cover, directly, old, much, more, rapidly, small, visible, powerful, long, before, to take, significant, effective;

b) to uncover, ineffective, to give, after, powerless, short, large, invisible, slowly, less, little, new, indirectly, insignificant.

XIII.Match up the words which have a similar meaning:

a) investigation, rapidly, valve, shape, immense, to expand, speed, to examine, to receive, to apply, significance, efficient;

b) importance, research, to use, effective, to get, to study, velocity, to extend, form, tube, fast, tremendous.

XIV. Try to memorize the words and word-groups:

■ discovery – открытие ■ investigation – (научное) исследование; изыскание, изучение ■ pure science – чистая наука ■ vacuum techniques – вакуумная техника ■ cathode rays – катодные лучи ■communication – связь, сообщение ■ on a world scale – в мировом масштабе ■ a decisive factor – решающий фактор ■ nucleonics – нуклеоника (ядерная физика и ядерная техника) ■ store – запас ■ a branch of science – отрасль науки ■ significant – значительный, важный ■ advance – прогресс, успех ■ treatment – лечение ■ to play the leading role – играть ведущую роль.


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