IV. Find the equivalents:
|1. numerical measurements||1. физическое оборудование|
|2. by using physical analogs||2. скорость в секунду|
|3. the binary system||3. численные величины|
|4. any information||4. численные измерения|
|5. other physical variables||5. двоичная система|
|6. numerical quantities||6. любая информация|
|7. a speed per second||7. один из способов|
|8. physical equipment||8. особая ячейка памяти|
|9. one of the ways||9. используя физические аналоги|
|10. a particular memory cell||10. другие физические переменные|
V. Arrange (a) synonyms and (b) antonyms in pairs and translate them:
a) to perform; to compute; to take in; a figure; to arrange; to show; to carry out; a digit; to calculate; little; to display; small; to receive; to position; instruction; data; location; command; information; cell
b) inside; to the right; addition; multiplication: simple; to the left; division; outside; small; complex; big; subtraction; differentiating; at the right; integrating; at the left; the right-hand column; the left-hand column
VI. Form nouns from the verbs by adding suffixes:
M о d e l: to equip - equipment
to arrange, to require, to measure, to state, to develop
M о d e l: to divide - division
to decide, to include, to conclude, to exclude
M о d e 1: to direct - direction
to subtract, to select, to react, to construct, to act
M о d e 1: to compute - computation
to inform, to combine, to determine, to represent, to polarize
VII. Complete the following sentences:
1. Information is a set of marks or signs that.... 2. Reasonable operations are.... 3. Logical operations include.... 4. A very important logical operation is.... 5. Physically the set of bits is a set of arrangements of some.... 6. Determining means which of two operations is to be performed.... 7. The computer must be told exactly which address contains... and which contains.... 8. The computer is told what operations to perform by means of.... 9. Any information may be represented by the binary systems including two digits:... and.... 10. A bit is the smallest part of....
VIII. Memorize the following definitions:
1. Information is a set of marks or signs that have meaning. 2. Reasonable operations are mathematical and logical operations. 3. Mathematical operations include arithmetic and algebraic operations. 4. The smallest unit of information for a computer is called a byte. A byte consists of eight bits. 5. The word "bit" is formed from the letter "b" in the word "binary" and two letters "it" in the word "digit".
IX. Answer the following questions:
1. What is information? 2. What does a set of marks consist of? 3. What is one of the ways of storing information in a computer? 4. What is a byte? 5. What is a bit? 6. How many bits does a byte usually contain? 7. What is an instruction? 8. By means of what is the computer told what operations to perform? 9. What are machine words? 10. What does a machine word consist of? 11. What are addresses? 12. What are reasonable operations? 13. What do mathematical operations include? 14. What do logical operations include? 15. In what system is information represented for the modern electronic computer? 16. What are the two basic types of words that are put into a memory?
X. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type:
a) 1. What kind of computer was it? - It was a digital computer. 2. The computer can perform different kinds of operations. 3. This kind of logical problem is very simple. 4. Will you kindly explain to us the operation of this kind of machine? 5. Be so kind, show us the new equipment.
b) 1. As you already know logical relations in a computer are expressed by hardware. 2. As the ordinary business adding machine has the special equipment inside it, it can store information. 3. An electronic computer can add, subtract, multiply, and divide as well. 4. Natural sciences include mathematics, physics, chemistry, medicine, geology, biology, bionics, as well as the engineering sciences and other fields of knowledge. 5. As our professor was speaking of the
history of computers, he mentioned P.L. Chebyshev and his great inventions. 6. My friend works at a plant as an engineer.
c) 1. Progressive people everywhere in the world must fight for peace. 2. Yesterday we heard an interesting lecture on modern electronics which was arranged for the students. 3. He asked me for a book on microcomputers' organization. 4. The first computing machines were not reliable (надежный), for there were no good electrical units. 5. The instructions are placed inside the computer, for the computer itself can select the numbers of instructions.
XI. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the predicates in the Passive Voice:
1. These digits are easily multiplied. 2. I was asked many questions about my work. 3. They were explained how to solve this problem on a computer. 4. The sequence of reasonable operations has been performed by the computer. 5. The new department of mathematics has just been opened. 6. Many books on computers' organization and architecture had been translated from Russian into English by the end of last year. 7. The experiments on the new microcomputer were being carried out during the whole month. 8. All the digits are recorded on the paper tape when addition is performed. 9. The new key adding machine was transferred into the next room yesterday. 10. The sequence of reasonable operations is now being carried out by this microcomputer. 11. The conference was addressed by a well-known scientist. 12. The invention of computers was spoken of at the last lecture. 13. Modern personal computers are always looked at with interest. 14. Many new branches of industry have been developed in our country since World War II.
XII. Fill in the blanks with the verbs given below. Use them in the Passive Voice:
to express; to carry out; to invent; to record; to polarize; to tell; to store; to represent; to require; to construct
1. All the digits inside the hardware... by the arranging of the special equipment. 2. Complex calculations... with the help of a computer. 3. A special counter wheel (счетное колесо) for an arithmometer... by a Russian engineer V.T. Ordner in 1874. 4. The answers of computations... often in the form of tables. 5. Small spots on a surface inside a computer... magnetically. 6. By means of instruction any computer... what operations to perform. 7. All instructions... in registers, the units of hardware. 8. Any information... by the binary system. 9. Numbers or instructions... lor solving a problem by a computer. 10. Several computing units... by M.V. Lomonosov for computational science.
XIII. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the modal verbs and their equivalents:
1. Information or data can be stored in the computer's memory or storage. 2. An analog computer is able to calculate by using physical analogs of numerical measurements. 3. The first automatic computers could operate at the low speed. 4. Your paper may be published at our Institute. 5. My friend was happy when at last he might work at the computing centre. 6. Our students are allowed to visit the computing centre to see the operation of the computer ES-1045. 7. Every student must know that a digital computer performs reasonable operations. 8. Some operations for this computer have to be changed and new instructions have to be added. 9. The instructions are recorded in the order in which they are to be carried out. 10. You should know the difference between the digital and analog computers. 11. We ought to help him to solve this problem by a personal computer. 12. According to (согласно) the time-table you are to begin your classes at 8 o'clock. 13. Every student of our speciality has to know what a hybrid computer is. 14. We were permitted to attend the conference on cybernetics.
XIV. Find the sentences in which the verbs 'to have' and 'to be' are translated as «должен»:
1. This ordinary adding machine has ten keys for each column of digits. 2. The main task of this article was to show the Results of research work. 3. This personal computer has been constructed at our lab. 4. The lecture was to begin at 9 o'clock. 5. Our aim is to study hard and master our speciality. 6. Our lab assistant has to construct this electronic device (прибор). 7. The general purpose of this unit (block) is to perform different arithmetic operations. 8. The participants of the scientific conference are to arrive tomorrow. 9. You have to remember the names of the scientists who have contributed to the development of your speciality. 10. The results of the experiment have carefully been checked up today.
XV. Translate the following sentences paying attention to 'there + to be':
l. There are many universities and institutes in our country. 2. There is a students' scientific and technical society at our Institute. 3. There are various computers at our computing centre. 4. There were only four faculties in our Institute before the World War II. 5. There will be some engineers at the seminar on programming tomorrow. 6. There is a seminar on the History of our Motherland today. 7. There was a lecture on cybernetics yesterday. 8. There were many ways of solving the problem. 9. There are many complex parts and units in every computer. 10. There will be some new laboratories in our Institute next year.
XVI. State the functions of the Gerund. Translate the sentences:
1. Logical operations consist of comparing, selecting, sorting, matching, and determining. 2. The way of solving this problem is very difficult. 3. After performing calculations a computer displays a result. 4. A set of marks or signs can be stored by polarizing little spots on a magnetic surface. 5. Differentiating and integrating are algebraic operations. 6. Registers are used for storing information. 7. Blaze Pascal's merit consists in his constructing the first mechanical computer. 8. By performing the reasonable operations on a computer we solve different kinds of problems for our national economy.
XVII. Translate into English using the Gerund:
1. Одним из способов хранения информации внутри вычислительной машины является хранение с помощью ряда поляризованных точек на магнитной поверхности. 2. Путем размещения специальных устройств внутри вычислительной машины можно хранить информацию. 3. Возведение в степень и извлечение квадратного корня - математические операции. 4. Компьютер используется для решения сложных задач.