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Derivational patterns —

simple, non-derivative words: book, walk,etc.

synonymy of affixes: lovely – bravely; wooden – widen;

conversion: supplement (V & N)

Controversial problems of the part-of-speech classification: the category of state.

The category of State . The Stative is built by the prefix and the root of a word. They are: awake, applause, ablaze (пылать – в прямом смысле, зд. быть взволнованным), afraid. The problem of the stative is controversial. The stative is not universally recognized as a separate part of speech. Traditionally it was classed together with adjectives, because stative has something in common with adjectives (points to some quantity, can be modified by an adverb, ex.: fast asleep). It differs from the adjective (has no degrees of comparison), it has only one function in the sentence - that of predicative (Ex.: The child is asleep). It cannot be used as an attribute. Ильиш uses the 3 criteria principle in his analysis of the Stative and concluded that it is a separate part of speech. It differs from the adjective from the point of view of meaning, function and form. Meaning. It's meaning is that of the passing state a person or a thing happens to be in (not that of a quality). Its form is unchangeable. Usually the Stative follows a link verb and occasionally a noun (Ex.: man alive). It can follow an adverb ( Ex.: fast asleep). 3. Its function is that of the predicative. Бархударов и Блох also used the 3 criteria principle, but they arrived at different conclusions. As to its meaning ББ believe that like adjectives, statives express properties of nouns. They state that the Stative has a changeable form. It has degrees of comparison, though they are not synthetical but analytical.

Ex.: The one most aware of the situation. The Functions of the Stative: 1. as the predicative 2. as an attribute, though a post positional attribute (E.g. man alive) The statives in many aspects are like adjectives.

Conclusion: the Stative belongs to the class of adjectives. It makes up a subclass of its own within the class of adjectives.

The three criteria applied to notional parts of speech:

NOUN: 1) substance;

2) number & case; derivational suffixes;

3) combinability with A, Prp, Adj, Vb; functions of S, O, C.

ADJ: 1) property of substance;

2) degrees of comparison; derivational suffixes;

3) combinability with N, Adv, Vb; functions of Mn Cs .

The three criteria applied to notional parts of speech:

VERB: 1) process;

2) tense, voice, aspect, mood, person, number, order; derivational suffixes;

3) combinability with N, Adj, Adv; function of P.

ADV: 1) property of process;

2) degrees of comparison; derivational suffixes;

3) combinability with Vb, Adj, Adv; functions of Mv .






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