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Discuss the following questions

1. The subject matter of phonetics.

2. The development of phonetics as a linguistic science. The contribution of Russian and foreign linguists into its development.

3. The connection of phonetics with other branches of linguistics:

a) grammar and phonetics;

b) lexicology and phonetics;

c) stylistics and phonetics.

4. Branches of phonetics:

a) general and special phonetics and their interconnection. Historical, descriptive and comparative phonetics as branches of special phonetics;

b) four aspects of speech sounds. Branches of phonetics based on these aspects, their interrelation and connection with non-linguistic sciences;

c) segmental and suprasegmental phonetics.

5. Methods and instruments of phonetic investigation:

a) the methods of direct observation;

b) the experimental (instrumental) methods;

c) the linguistic methods.

6. The application of the basic theoretical knowledge of English phonetics in teaching.

Comment on the following terms

1. General phonetics, special phonetics, historical phonetics, descriptive phonetics, comparative phonetics, articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, auditory phonetics, functional phonetics, phonology, sociophonetics, segmental phonetics, suprasegmental phonetics.

2. Palatography, x-ray photography (cinematography), laryngoscopy, oscillography, spectrography, kymography, intonography, distributional analysis.

3. Alternation, alliteration, onomatopoeia, articulation, morpheme, word.

Explain what is meant by the following statements

1. Vocabulary and grammar of a language can function only when the language has phonetic form.

2. Phonetic structures interact with society and change in response to different social functions.

3. The sound matter of language is a complex unity of four aspects.

4. Methods of direct observation are rather subjective, whereas instrumental methods are objective. But these methods are complementary and not oppositive to one another.

Practical tasks

1. Read these pairs of words. State to what part of speech they belong. Single out the sounds that interchange. Translate the words into Russian.

Deep — depth; antique — antiquity; know — knowledge; brief — brevity; please — pleasure; sagacious — sagacity; perceive — perception; strong — strength; nature — natural; describe — description; precise — precision; broad — breadth; mode — modify; admit — admission; assume — assumption; correct — correction; conclude — conclusion; confess — confession; divide— division; compete — competition; deceive — deception; clothe — cloth; glaze — glass; lose — loss; loathe — loath; halve — half; live — life; sell—sale; prove — proof; serve — serf.

2. Translate these words, transcribe them and single out the sounds that differentiate their meaning.

очень, меняться;

костюм, свита;

личный, персонал, личный состав;

патруль, бензин;

мэр, майор;

выносить (терпеть), пиво;

год, ухо;

набережная, очередь;

влиять, эффект;

сквозняк, засуха;

волосы, заяц, наследник;

наливать, бедный, лапа;

мужество, вагон;

бунт (разгром), маршрут (путь);

молочная, дневник;

наполнять, чувствовать.

3. Read these rhymes. State what sounds are used to produce the effect of alliteration and for what purpose.

a) She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore;
The shells she sells are sea-shells, I’m sure.
So if she sells sea-shells on the sea-shore,
Then I’m sure she sells sea-shore shells.

b) Why do you cry, Willy?
Why do you cry?
Why Willy? Why Willy?
Why Willy? Why?

c) The tutor who tooted the flute
Tried to tutor two tooters to toot
Said the two to the tutor:
“Is it harder to toot
Or to tutor two tooters to toot?”


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