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Lesson 9

The prominent artista of the USA

I. Перекладіть наступні інтернаціональні слова:

aborigen, continent, colonist, colony, museum, artist, comfortable, professional, permanent(ly), emigrate, reputation

II. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:

to have influence on; neverending struggle; to look alike; American-born painters; to win a reputation; to play a part

III. . Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся зрозуміти його. Випишіть з тексту всі невідомі слова, складіть план до тексту

The arts and crafts of the aborigens who first lived on the North American continent had little influence on the art of the colonists who came to live here in the 17th and 18th centuries, except for areas of the Southwest, where Indian arts were encouraged and adopted by the Spanish monks, as they were.sin Spanish colonies in South America. Indian arts were forgotten until very recent times. Indeed, the colonists, when they had no time for art at all in their never-ending struggle to tame the new country and secure their settlements, continued the arts and crafts they had brought with them from Europe. You can still see in museums the silver dishes and goblets made by the Dutch and English colonists, furniture from French and German colonies, rugs and other things from all the colonies. Painting was confined to inn signs at first, often crudely made by unknown artists. As the colonists grew more comfortable, they began to have their portraits painted, and although there were a few early painters important enough to have their names remembered, most of the portraits of those early American farmers and merchants you see today were painted by artists who travelled from town to town, staying at inns and farmhouses, painting the prominent families of the neighborhood. Often these portraits look very much alike, and no wonder, for theartists usually had the background and the figure already painted in, adding the face when he got a customer.

Although painters began coming to America with the first explorers, the earliest professionally trained European artist to settle here permanently was Hendrick Couturier, a painter who emigrated to the Dutch West India colonies about 1661, and only a century later, the first American-born painters won international reputation and played a part in the artistic life of Europe

I. Перекладіть наступні інтернаціональні слова:

federal, lyrical, gallery, popular, history, romanticism, genre, poetry, conflict, subject

II. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:

early federal portrait painting; portrait school; landscape painting; genre painting; historical painting

III. . Прочитайте текст, намагайтеся зрозуміти його. Випишіть з тексту всі невідомі слова, складіть план до тексту

THE PROMINENT ARTISTS OF THE EARLY REPUBLIC

Colonial and early federal portrait painting took its lead from the English portrait school and produced some few men of great talent such as J. S. Copley (1738-1815) and G.Stuart (1755-1828). Copley raised his art to the European level. Among Copley's best works is his "Boy with Squirrel" (1765). It is a lyrical portrait of the artist's brother. Copley created a gallery of portraits of Americans. Gilbert Stuart is one of the most popular portraitists of the United States.

Benjamin West (1738-1820) is famous as a historical painter. He depicted scenes from American and English history. His great popularity rested on his grand-style imaginative compositions such as "The Death of Wolfe" and "Penn's Treaty with the Indians".

Romanticism and landscape painting are represented by the Hudson River School. Thomas Cole is considered to be the founder of the landscape painting school. Cole's romanticism greatly influenced the painters of the Hudson River School Genre painting school is represented by George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879). In his drawings he pictured the adventurous life of the western pioneers. His best genre painting "Four Traders Descending the Missouri" is full of romantic poetry.

Many painters painted Indian life. George Catlin was one of them. His scenes of Indian life are full of vivacity.

I. Перекладіть наступні інтернаціональні слова:

civil, period, stimulus, economy, correspondent, reputation, tradition, character, impressionism, exponent, originator, origin, personal, style

II. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:

post-war; both . . . and; a pictorial correspondent; native portrait traditions; a society painter; to be influenced by

III. Прочитайте текст, дайте відповіді на питання:

1. Who represented realistic traditions in American art in the Post-Civil War period? 2. What pictures by W. Homer can you name? 3. What did Thomas Eakins paint?

THE POST-CIVIL WAR PERIOD AND REALISTIC TRADITIONS IN PAINTING

The Civil War was a great stimulus to the development both in the American economy and American art. Realistic traditions in art were represented by such great American painters as Winslow Homer (1836-1910), Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) and some others.

Winslow Homer was a pictorial correspondent during the Civil War. His picture "Prisoners from the Front" was a great success and established Homer's reputation as an outstanding painter. In his art he showed the everyday life of the common people. Thomas Eakins painted portraits and genre scenes, James Whistler continued native portrait traditions of the United States, one of his most famous portraits is "The Artist's Mother". John Sargent became mostly a society painter, but he also portrayed many truthful characters.

Impressionism had its heyday at the end of the nineteenth century. The best exponent of this trend in art, Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), lived in France and worked with the originators of the movement. She developed her own personal style, though influenced by Japanese art and left pictures which are devoted to womanhood

I. Перекладіть наступні інтернаціональні слова:

academy, collection, crisis, spirit(ual), culture, idealistic, idyllic, genre, group, artist, ordinary, tendency, expression, tradition, illustrate, active, graphic, abstraction, style, cubism, surrealism, technique, affect, community, sentiment, •reform

II. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення:

what was going on abroad; trends in art; upper and middle classes; slum scenes

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ART

The first academies and exhibitions were established only in the early nineteenth century; the first serious art schools tame only in the eighteen-seventies; and for representative icollections of great paintings to study, the American artists had to wait until the twentieth century. As a result American artists have always been intensely curious to know what was going on abroad.

The 20th century with its crises In economic life and spiritual culture produced a multitude of trends in pictorial art. Some painters continued the idealistic trend in art and pictured idyllic scenes from the life of upper and middle classes. The genre school was continued by a group of American artists who pictured the everyday life of ordinary people in large cities. They were Robert Henry (1865-1929), John Sloan (1871-1951) and others. Realistic tendencies found their expression in slum scenes of George Luks The democratic tradition in American painting was illustrated by the works of Rockwell Kent (1882-1971). R. Kent joined the Socialist Party of America, he was an active fighter for peace and took part in the International Peace Movement. R. Kent made a gift to the Soviet Union of his personal collection of paintings, drawings and works in graphic arts.

After World War II, a new generation of Americans, nourished in part by the work of eminent Europeans who had settled here during the 30s, turned again toward abstraction. The dominant style of the 1950s was a nonrepresentational compound of elements from Cubism and Expressionism, with some Surrealism influence, variously known as Abstract Expressionism, Action Painting, and the New York School. Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, its most famous practitioners, introduced largeness of scale and novel techniques that have not only affected a broad segment of the community of American artists, but have commanded respect in Europe, and other parts of the world as well, making the United States an international leader in the art of painting for the first time in its history.

Список використаних джерел:

1. Парахина А . В ., Базилевич В . Г . Познакомьтесь – Великобритания и США. Пособие по обучению чтению на английском языке для сред. спец. учебных заведений. – М.: Высшая школа, 1988. – 144 с.

2. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты)

3. http://nota.triwe.net/

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/

5. Ю. Голіцинський «Граматика»

6. Лариса Романова « Практична граматика англійської мови»


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