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Признаки бомбажа консервов


ВАРИАНТ 2.

3 200 200 100

3 200 200 100

3 200 200 100

1. Cultivation of cells in artificial media in aseptic conditions:

a) in vitro

b) in vivo

c) callus

d) explant

e) in situ

2. Particular type of tissue, representative accumulation of undifferentiated cells:

a) callus

b) explant

c) regenerate

d) clon

e) locus

3. Reduction cells division:

a) meiosis

b) mitosis

c) kinesis

d) telophase

e) amitosis

4. Division of somatic cells:

a) mitosis

b) amitosis

c) meiosis

d) transcription

e) interphase

5. Interconnection of organs with each other:

a) correlation

b) competence

c) determinative

d) cryoprotection

e) sublimation

6. Property of a vegetative cell to realise the genetic information:

a) totipotency

b) differentiation

c) regeneration

d) complementarity

e) induction

7. Aseptic received plant with the developed roots and the runaways, generated in culture, that is in vitro:

a) regenerant

b) explant

c) intron

d) embryoid

e) metabolite

8. G.Gaberlandt formulate cells principles in:

a) 1902 y.

b) 1899 y.

c) 1914 y.

d) 1907 y.

e) 1900 y.

9. The hypothesis of totypotency has been put forward by:

a) G.Gaberlandt

b) K.Rehinger

c) V.Robbins

d) E.Davidson

e) F.White

10. Who was first from the scientists who begin to grow isolated parts and organs of plants?

a) K.Rehinger

b) G.Gaberlandt

c) Т.Murasige

d) F.Skug

e) F.White

11. Principles of cells’ cultivation clear formulated by:

a) G.Gaberlandt

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbinson

d) Т.Murasige

e) F.White

12. Nutrient medium, which was used by G.Gaberlandt in experiments:

a) Knop

b) White

c) Gamborg

d) Hogland

e) Sniders

13. R.Rehinger tried to grow buds, cuts of the roots on:

a) moistured sand

b) agar medium

c) liquid medium




d) different media

e) firm surface

14. Growing of isolated parts and organs of plants first began by:

a) German scientists

b) alchemists

c) Russian scientists

d) scientists from different countries

e) English scientists

15. R.Harrison has grew in lymphatic liquid:

a) frog’s neuroblast

b) callus tissue

c) potato’s cells

d) cell’s embryoid

e) frog’s lymphoblast

16. Achievements of which scientist related to cambial tissues of willow and carrot:

a) F.White

b) E.Davidson

c) V.Robbins

d) V.Kotte

e) G.Gaberlandt

17. Scientist, which has supported continuous long-term culture of roots’ tips for 30 years:

a) R.Gotre

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbins

d) Т.Murasige

e) D.Wotson

18. Scientist with collaborators, which have investigated growth of buds on pieces of tobacco steams:

a) F.Skug

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbins

d) Т.Murasige

e) D.Wotson

19. Substances, stimulating cellular division:

a) cytokinines

b) auxins

c) vitamins

d) macroelements

e) microelements

20. Widely used nutrient medium, which was created in 1962 y:

a) Murasige-Skug

b) White

c) Shenk-Hil’debrandt

d) Nich and Nich

e) Gamborg-Evelang

21. Growth stimulating substance:

a) kinetin

b) mesoinosit

c) vitamin

d) bichromate

e) carbogel

22. Culture, cultivated in liquid medium:

a) suspension

b) tumor

c) callus

d) clonal

e) somatic

23. Since which year begin to cultivate plants’ cells in Soviet Union?

a) 1944

b) 1930

c) 1980

d) 1934

e) 1994

24. Since which year begin to cultivate cells in Kazakhstan?

a) 1975

b) 1955

c) 1995

d) 2001

e) 1948

25. Who is founder of biotechnology in Kazakhstan?

a) M.Aithozhin

b) G.Ualihanov

c) S.Columbaev

d) А.Udel’skaya

e) Zh.Zhardemaliev

26. Tissue, cultivated in “in vitro” conditions:

a) callus

b) strain

c) suspension

d) explant

e) intron

27. Plant, received from cell culture:

a) regenerate

b) explant

c) totypotent

d) strain

e) sort

28. Basic components of nutrient medium vitamins of:

a) group В

b) group А

c) group D

d) nicotinic acid

e) folic acid

29. Components of nutrient medium, assisting in regulation of plants physiological processes:

a) phytohormones

b) carbohydrates

c) iron helate

d) pectin

e) gelatin

30. For normal growth and progress of plants it is necessary such level of pH:

a) 5-6

b) 4-5

c) 6-8

d) 2-4

e) 9-12

31. For preparation of firm nutrient media necessary:

a) agar

b) potassium

c) phytohormone

d) auxin

e) carbonate

32. Optimal temperature for cultivation of plants’ cells:

a) 25-32 оС

b) 38-40 оС

c) 15-25 оС

d) 5-10 оС

e) 45-65 оС

33. External factors, influencing on process of cells cultivation:



a) light

b) heat

c) cool

d) darkness

e) gas

34. Cell, deprived of cell wall:

a) protoplast

b) leucoplast

c) chromoplast

d) liposome

e) lysosome

35. Fragment of plant or piece of the tissue:

a) explant

b) callus

c) passage

d) suspension

e) protoplast

36. Cell’s specialization:

a) differentiation

b) redifferentiation

c) dedifferentiation

d) regeneration

e) transpiration

37. Transition of specialized cells to proliferation:

a) differentiation

b) differentiation

c) translation

d) regeneration

e) transpiration

38. Transition of transplantation of callus in nutrient medium:

a) passage

b) transformation

c) inoculum

d) proliferation

e) fermentation

39. Part of suspension culture, used for passaging on fresh nutrient medium:

a) inoculum

b) passage

c) proliferation

d) maceration

e) cristalization

40. Nutrient media for cultivation of cells and tissues of plants are media:

a) multicomponent

b) single-component

c) natural

d) two-component

e) organic

41. Source of carbohydrates in media are:

a) sucrose

b) ribose

c) deoxyribose

d) galactose

e) tetrose

42. New formation of cells and tissues by reproduction of legacy cells and tissues:

a) proliferation

b) differentiation

c) correlation

d) meiosis

e) degradation

43. Process of formation of callus called:

a) callus formation

b) histogenesis

c) rhyzogenesis

d) gemmogenesis

e) cytocinesis

44. Complex of processes, leading to distinction between maternal and filial cells, and also between filial cells:

a) differentiation

b) redifferentiation

c) dedifferentiation

d) regeneration

e) transpiration

45. Special type of tissue, formed on whole plant in result of its wound:

a) callus

b) meristem

c) apex

d) cambium

e) parenchyma

46. Aggregate of reactions connected to transcription and translation:

a) processing

b) biosynthesis

c) correlation

d) dissimilation

e) assimilation

47. Since which period begin interphase period:

a) G1

b) S

c) G2

d) G0

e) R1

48. Acquisition by cell conditions of readiness to realization of defined hereditary properties:

a) determination

b) complementarity

c) differentiation

d) proliferation

e) variability

49. Ability of cell to perceive inductive influence and to react specific on it by changing of development:

a) competence

b) callus formation

c) mytosis

d) meiosis

e) translation

50. The basic of structure of biological membranes are performed by:



a) bilayer of phospholipids

b) amino acids

c) triple layer of proteins

d) bilayer of carbohydrates

e) double helix of DNA

51. Which two periods make up life-cycle of cell?

a) interphase and mitotic

b) anaphase and telophase

c) interphase and anaphase

d) telophase and interphase

e) prophase and mitotic

52. At meiosis of cell first occurs:

a) division of nucleus

b) division of cytoplasm

c) formation of partition

d) division of ribosome

e) division of mitochondrion

53. The longest phase of mitosis is:

a) prophase

b) telophase

c) metaphase

d) anaphase

e) all phases take the same time

54. The shortest phase of mitosis is:

a) anaphase

b) telophase

c) metaphase

d) prophase

e) all phases take the same time

55. Which ions are necessary for existence of cells?

a) of sodium and potassium

b) of calcium and sodium

c) of magnesium and potassium

d) of magnesium and sodium

e) of calcium and magnesium

56. Living cells are systems:

a) open

b) closed

c) circled

d) isolated

e) half-opened

57. Amino acids in protein molecule connected between each other by which kind of connection:


a) peptide


b) hydrogen


c) ionic


d) covalent


e) disulphide

58. Indicate peptide bond:


a) -СОNH-


b) -COOH-


c) -NH2


d) -CH-


e) - CH2OH –

59. Basic structure units of protein are:


a) amino acids


b) fat acids and glycerine


c) glucose and fructose


d) dicarboxylic acids

e) nucleosides

60. Sedimentation of particles under power of gravity:


a) sedimentation


b) sensabilization


c) flocculation


d) coagulation

e) osmosis

61. 6-furfurilaminopurine:

a) cynetin


b) zeatine


c) auxin


d) glycine

e) pyroxene

62. Number of phases of growing of callus tissues:

a) 6


b) 4


c) 7


d) 2


e) 9

63. First phase of growing of callus cells:

a) latent


b) logarithmic


c) stationary


d) dead


e) linear

64. Third phase of growing of callus cells:

a) linear


b) logarithmic


c) stationary


d) dead


e) latent

65. Fifth phase of growing of callus cells:

a) stationary


b) logarithmic


c) linear


d) dead


e) latent

66. Exponential phase called another:

a) logarithmic


b) linear


c) stationary


d) dead


e) latent

67. Process of organs, tissues and cells formation:

a) morphogenesis

b) parthenogenesis

c) embryogenesis

d) rhyzogenesis

e) gemmogenesis

68. Increasing the number of genes in genome:

a) amplification

b) replification

c) differentiation

d) callus

e) mitosis

69. Part of DNA molecule:

a) gene

b) locus

c) chromosome

d) lysosome

e) protein

70. Gene collection:

a) gen

b) phenotype

c) chromosome

d) site

e) diploid

71. Formation tissue:

a) meristem

b) parenchyme

c) callus

d) root

e) bud

72. High ratio auxin/cytokinin causes:

a) rhyzogenesis

b) gemmogenesis

c) histogenesis

d) cytogenesis

e) callus genesis

73. Low ratio auxin/cytokinin conducive to:

a) gemmogenesis

b) rhyzogenesis

c) histogenesis

d) cytogenesis

e) callus genesis

74. Formative tissue, forming others:

a) meristem

b) embryoid

c) parenchyma

d) callus

e) proliferation

75. Formation of germ-like structures:

a) embryoidogenesis

b) rhyzophilogenesis

c) gemmogenesis

d) phylogenesis

e) ontogenesis

76. As a result of morphogenesis formed:

a) regenerant

b) callus

c) strain

d) explant

e) embryoid

77. Types of plants, took in space by Kazakhstan cosmonauts:

a) wheat

b) melon

c) potato

d) nightshade

e) carrot

78. With cells of which plant cosmonauts made experiments:

a) corn

b) oats

c) apricot

d) potato

e) tomato

79. First stage of clonal reproduction:

a) bringing of explants in culture

b) reproduction in fact

c) establishment of duplicated bines

d) planting of plants in soil

e) cells cultivation

80. Plant, receiving by asexual, i.e. vegetative reproduction:

a) clone

b) callus

c) regenerant

d) explant

e) animal unit

81. Asexual reproduction in culture of cells and tissues, at which arising plants genetically identical to initial sample:

a) clonal

b) amitotic

c) mitotic

d) meiotic

e) budding

82. Forth stage of clonal reproduction:

a) planting of plants in soil

b) introduction of explants in culture

c) rooting of duplicated bines

d) reproduction

e) cells cultivation

83. Form of variety of gene:

a) allele

b) albinism

c) beccross

d) locus

e) site

84. Spare buds:

a) adventive

b) haploid

c) diploid

d) procariotic

e) apex

85. Loosing of pigment by organism:

a) albinism

b) beccross

c) vector

d) colorblindness

e) destruction

86. Induction of haploids in culture of male and female gametophyte called:

a) androgenesis

b) gemmogenesis

c) rhyzogenesis

d) gynogenesis

e) organogenesis

87. Induction of haploids in culture of female gametophyte called:

a) gynogenesis

b) gemmogenesis

c) rhyzogenesis

d) androgenesis

e) organogenesis

88. False fertilization, at which embryo developed from unfertilized ovule:

a) pseudogamy

b) monogamy

c) polygami

d) androgenesis

e) gynogenesis

89. Formation of haploid plants from embryoids called:

a) direct androgenesis

b) indirect androgenesis

c) direct sporogenesis

d) indirect sporogenesis

e) gynogenesis

90. Apical part of stem or root:

a) apex

b) allele

c) meristem

d) cambium

e) parenchyma

91. Reproduction of organisms, without gamic process:

a) apomixic

b) apex

c) amplification

d) regeneration

e) proliferation

92. Observance of conditions of full sterility:

a) aseptic

b) degradation

c) degassion

d) beccross

e) genesis

93. Hormones of indol group:

a) auxin

b) intron

c) amylase

d) gibberellin

e) pyridoxine

94. Recurring heterosis:

a) beccross

b) mutation

c) genome

d) mutagenesis

e) cloning

95. Device in biotechnological manufacture on growing of cells:

a) bioreactor

b) laminar

c) autoclave

d) distillator

e) septic tank

96. Glassiness:

a) vitrification

b) ammonification

c) nitrification

d) homogenization

e) fermentation

97. Branch of science and manufacture of economic important substance and products:

a) biotechnology

b) genetic engineering

c) nanotechnology

d) cellular selection

e) agrotechnology

98. Changing of substance in another type by biological way:

a) biotransformation

b) bioremediation

c) bioengineering

d) biodestruction

e) cryoconservation

99. Part of callus tissue planting on fresh firm nutrient medium:

a) passage

b) inoculum

c) regenerant

d) explant

e) cybrid

100. Structures, which join to itself one or another genes and transformed them in another cells:

a) vectors

b) haploids

c) diploids

d) strains

e) chromosomes

101. Unit of heredity:

a) gene

b) genotype

c) genome

d) phenotype

e) site

102. Genes, located outside nuclear, in mitochondrion and plastids:

a) cytoplasmic

b) amplification

c) genesis

d) proliferative

e) apical

103. Appearance of genotype:

a) genesis

b) diploid

c) mitosis

d) replication

e) mutation

104. One of cells, growing from pollen, participating in process of fertilisation:

a) generative

b) vegetative

c) expressive

d) repressive

e) protoplast

105. Field of molecular and cellular genetics:

a) genetic engineering

b) biotechnology

c) general genetics

d) bionics

e) biotransformation

106. Inhibition of activity of genes:

a) genes repression

b) genes expression

c) genomics

d) genesis

e) agenesis

107. Transformation of information in chains of nucleoids in DNA molecule:

a) genes expression

b) genes repression

c) genes translation

d) generation

e) genes transduction

108. Set of chromosomes of particular kind:

a) genome

b) genotype

c) gene pool

d) genetics

e) gender

109. Group of heredity genes:

a) genotype

b) phenotype

c) genome

d) genesis

e) producer

110. Cell of hybrids, having genetic difference:

a) heterokaryon

b) homocaryon

c) gibberellin

d) diploid

e) haploid

111. Hybrid, without genetic difference of cell:

a) homocaryon

b) heterokaryon

c) gibberellin

d) correlation

e) determination

112. Accumulation of chromosomes in female gametophyte in conditions in vitro:

a) gynogenesis

b) histogenesis

c) cytogenesis

d) heterosis

e) genome

113. Formation of tissue:

a) histogenesis

b) cytogenesis

c) organogenesis

d) androgenesis

e) gametogenesis

114. Preparation of cell to defined path of development of organism:

a) determination

b) dedifferentiation

c) differentiation

d) diploidization

e) translation

115. Difference between cells and tissues of plants connected with its functional specialization:

a) differentiation

b) dedifferentiation

c) diploidization

d) determination

e) amplification

116. Method of identification of enzymes’ sensitivity:

a) immunoenzyme

b) immobile

c) induction

d) isogenic

e) histochemical

117. Radioimmunochemical and immune-enzyme methods related to:

a) express-method

b) classic method

c) repress-method

d) sensor-method

e) relax-method

118. In the capacity of appraisal of callus cultures in last time applies:

a) express-method

b) classic method

c) repress-method

d) sensor-method

e) relax-method

119. To the types of express-methods of appraisal of callus cultures are related:

a) radioimmunechemical and immune-enzyme methods

b) immune-enzyme and relax

c) radioimmunechemical and transmission

d) immune-enzyme and X-ray phase

e) chromatographic and X-ray phase

120. Creation of immobility of cells:

a) immobilization

b) relaxation

c) sensoric

d) amplification

e) inhibition

121. Keeping of cells in liquid nitrogen at temperature -196 оС:

a) cryoconservation

b) cryoscopy

c) passivation

d) amplification

e) inhibition

122. Cover tissue of cereal croup:

a) integument

b) inoculum

c) passage

d) immobile

e) isogen

123. Cells, growing in test tube:

a) in vitro

b) in vivo

c) express

d) suspension

e) intron

124. Cells cultivated in organism:

a) in vivo

b) in vitro

c) express

d) suspension

e) intron

125. Cultivation of cells in liquid medium and in device in conditions in vitro:

a) suspension

b) agarization

c) callus

d) biotranslation

e) bioelectrochemistry

126. Cultivation of biomass with influence of photoelement:

a) turbidostat

b) chemostat

c) flow-open

d) flow-closed

e) flow- stagnant

127. Cultivation of cells with strict concentration of growth-retarding:

a) chemostat

b) turbidostat

c) flow-open

d) flow-closed

e) deep

128. Passage of cells in ware with nutrient medium:

a) passage

b) intron

c) exon

d) induction

e) inoculum

129. Accumulation of cells in nutrient medium:

a) population

b) generation

c) passage

d) suspension

e) cycle

130. Method of construction of cells of new type on the basis of their cultivation, hybridization and reconstruction:

a) engineering

b) generation

c) segregation

d) recombination

e) retranslation

131. Substances which are don’t necessary for cells:

a) secondary metabolites

b) primary metabolites

c) cell’s population

d) suspension

e) inhibitors

132. Location of gene in particular place:

a) locus

b) line

c) clone

d) codon

e) triplet

133. Destruction and dissolving of intercellular substance:

a) maceration

b) locating

c) processing

d) correlation

e) splicing

134. Development of organism or form’s growth:

a) morphogenesis

b) mutation

c) rhyzogenesis

d) mutagenesis

e) meiosis

135. Appearance of mutations under factors influence:

a) mutagenesis

b) gystogenesis

c) onthogenesis

d) phylogenesis

e) translation

136. Physical and chemical agents: ionized ray, light, temperature:

a) mutagens

b) antigens

c) promoters

d) producers

e) sensors

137. Genes – swelling’s stimulants:

a) oncogene

b) nucellus

c) promoter

d) translator

e) locus

138. Increasing the number of chromosomes from haploid in 3-4 times:

a) polyploid

b) plasmid

c) diploid

d) aneuploid

e) genome

139. Cells, without nucleus:

a) procaryotes

b) eucaryotes

c) diploids

d) ptoplasts

e) haploids

140. Cells without cellular wall in the result of enzyme action or mechanical influence:

a) protoplast

b) procaryote

c) eucaryote

d) oncoplast

e) stem

141. False fertilization:

a) pseudogamy

b) plasmid

c) pathotoxin

d) megaspory

e) liposomy

142. Enzyme, splited DNA molecule:

a) restrictase

b) macerosm

c) lypase

d) amilase

e) synthetase

143. Site of nucleic acid or protein:

a) site

b) locus

c) line

d) genome

e) idiotype

144. Destruction of chromosomes in hybrid, appearance of new genotypes:

a) segregation

b) site

c) recombination

d) reverse

e) correlation

145. Synthesis of RNA:

a) transcription

b) splicing

c) metabolism

d) recombination

e) replication

146. Synthesis of protein in rybosome:

a) translation

b) correlation

c) transcription

d) splicing

e) induction

147. Part of thickened maternal bag in plant’s flower:

a) ovary

b) ring

c) stigma

d) style

e) apical point

148. Place, where ripen mother cells:

a) embryo sac

b) seeds’ buds

c) apical point

d) catalyst

e) functional center

149. Introduction in culture of foreign genetic information:

a) transformation

b) transploid

c) transcription

d) translation

e) deduction

150. Triple content of nucleus’ chromosomes:

a) triploid

b) tetraploid

c) haploid

d) diploid

e) pentaploid

151. New formation of cells and tissues by reproduction of legacy cells and tissues:

a) proliferation

b) differentiation

c) correlation

d) meiosis

e) degradation

152. Process of formation of callus called:

a) callus formation

b) histogenesis

c) rhyzogenesis

d) gemmogenesis

e) cytocinesis

153. Complex of processes, leading to distinction between maternal and filial cells, and also between filial cells:

a) differentiation

b) redifferentiation

c) dedifferentiation

d) regeneration

e) transpiration

154. Special type of tissue, formed on whole plant in result of its wound:

a) callus

b) meristem

c) apex

d) cambium

e) parenchyma

155. Principles of cells’ cultivation clear formulated by:

a) G.Gaberlandt

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbinson

d) Т.Murasige

e) F.White

156. Nutrient medium, which was used by G.Gaberlandt in experiments:

a) Knop

b) White

c) Gamborg

d) Hogland

e) Sniders

157. R.Rehinger tried to grow buds, cuts of the roots on:

a) moistured sand

b) agar medium

c) liquid medium

d) different media

e) firm surface

158. Growing of isolated parts and organs of plants first began by:

a) German scientists

b) alchemists

c) Russian scientists

d) scientists from different countries

e) English scientists

159. R.Harrison has grew in lymphatic liquid:

a) frog’s neuroblast

b) callus tissue

c) potato’s cells

d) cell’s embryoid

e) frog’s lymphoblast

160. Substances, stimulating cellular division:

a) cytokinines

b) auxins

c) vitamins

d) macroelements

e) microelements

161. Widely used nutrient medium, which was created in 1962 y:

a) Murasige-Skug

b) White

c) Shenk-Hil’debrandt

d) Nich and Nich

e) Gamborg-Evelang

162. Growth stimulating substance:

a) kinetin

b) mesoinosit

c) vitamin

d) bichromate

e) carbogel

163. Who is founder of biotechnology in Kazakhstan?

a) M.Aithozhin

b) G.Ualihanov

c) S.Columbaev

d) А.Udel’skaya

e) Zh.Zhardemaliev

164. Tissue, cultivated in “in vitro” conditions:

a) callus

b) strain

c) suspension

d) explant

e) intron

165. Plant, received from cell culture:

a) regenerate

b) explant

c) totypotent

d) strain

e) sort

166. Basic components of nutrient medium vitamins of:

a) group В

b) group А

c) group D

d) nicotinic acid

e) folic acid

167. Components of nutrient medium, assisting in regulation of plants physiological processes:

a) phytohormones

b) carbohydrates

c) iron helate

d) pectin

e) gelatin

168. Source of carbohydrates in media are:

a) sucrose

b) ribose

c) deoxyribose

d) galactose

e) tetrose

169. Aggregate of reactions connected to transcription and translation:

a) processing

b) biosynthesis

c) correlation

d) dissimilation

e) assimilation

170. Since which period begin interphase period:

a) G1

b) S

c) G2

d) G0

e) R1

171. Acquisition by cell conditions of readiness to realization of defined hereditary properties:

a) determination

b) complementarity

c) differentiation

d) proliferation

e) variability

172. Ability of cell to perceive inductive influence and to react specific on it by changing of development:

a) competence

b) callus formation

c) mytosis

d) meiosis

e) translation

173. External factors, influencing on process of cells cultivation:

a) light

b) heat

c) cool

d) darkness

e) gas

174. Cell, deprived of cell wall:

a) protoplast

b) leucoplast

c) chromoplast

d) liposome

e) lysosome

175. Fragment of plant or piece of the tissue:

a) explant

b) callus

c) passage

d) suspension

e) protoplast

176. Cell’s specialization:

a) differentiation

b) redifferentiation

c) dedifferentiation

d) regeneration

e) transpiration

177. Cultivation of cells in artificial media in aseptic conditions:

a) in vitro

b) in vivo

c) callus

d) explant

e) in situ

178. Particular type of tissue, representative accumulation of undifferentiated cells:

a) callus

b) explant

c) regenerate

d) clon

e) locus

179. Reduction cells division:

a) meiosis

b) mitosis

c) kinesis

d) telophase

e) amitosis

180. Aseptic received plant with the developed roots and the runaways, generated in culture, that is in vitro:

a) regenerant

b) explant

c) intron

d) embryoid

e) metabolite

181. G.Gaberlandt formulate cells principles in:

a) 1902 y.

b) 1899 y.

c) 1914 y.

d) 1907 y.

e) 1900 y.

182. The hypothesis of totypotency has been put forward by:

a) G.Gaberlandt

b) K.Rehinger

c) V.Robbins

d) E.Davidson

e) F.White

183. Division of somatic cells:

a) mitosis

b) amitosis

c) meiosis

d) transcription

e) interphase

184. Interconnection of organs with each other:

a) correlation

b) competence

c) determinative

d) cryoprotection

e) sublimation

185. Property of a vegetative cell to realise the genetic information:

a) totipotency

b) differentiation

c) regeneration

d) complementarity

e) induction

186. Since which year begin to cultivate cells in Kazakhstan?

a) 1975

b) 1955

c) 1995

d) 2001

e) 1948

187. For normal growth and progress of plants it is necessary such level of pH:

a) 5-6

b) 4-5

c) 6-8

d) 2-4

e) 9-12

188. For preparation of firm nutrient media necessary:

a) agar

b) potassium

c) phytohormone

d) auxin

e) carbonate

189. Optimal temperature for cultivation of plants’ cells:

a) 25-32 оС

b) 38-40 оС

c) 15-25 оС

d) 5-10 оС

e) 45-65 оС

190. Transition of specialized cells to proliferation:

a) differentiation

b) differentiation

c) translation

d) regeneration

e) transpiration

191. Transition of transplantation of callus in nutrient medium:

a) passage

b) transformation

c) inoculum

d) proliferation

e) fermentation

192. Nutrient media for cultivation of cells and tissues of plants are media:

a) multicomponent

b) single-component

c) natural

d) two-component

e) organic

193. The basic of structure of biological membranes are performed by:

a) bilayer of phospholipids

b) amino acids

c) triple layer of proteins

d) bilayer of carbohydrates

e) double helix of DNA

194. Who was first from the scientists who begin to grow isolated parts and organs of plants?

a) K.Rehinger

b) G.Gaberlandt

c) Т.Murasige

d) F.Skug

e) F.White

195. Achievements of which scientist related to cambial tissues of willow and carrot:

a) F.White

b) E.Davidson

c) V.Robbins

d) V.Kotte

e) G.Gaberlandt

196. Scientist, which has supported continuous long-term culture of roots’ tips for 30 years:

a) R.Gotre

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbins

d) Т.Murasige

e) D.Wotson

197. Scientist with collaborators, which have investigated growth of buds on pieces of tobacco steams:

a) F.Skug

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbins

d) Т.Murasige

e) D.Wotson

198. Culture, cultivated in liquid medium:

a) suspension

b) tumor

c) callus

d) clonal

e) somatic

199. Since which year begin to cultivate plants’ cells in Soviet Union?

a) 1944

b) 1930

c) 1980

d) 1934

e) 1994

200. Part of suspension culture, used for passaging on fresh nutrient medium:

a) inoculum

b) passage

c) proliferation

d) maceration

e) cristalization

201. Inhibition of activity of genes:

a) genes repression

b) genes expression

c) genomics

d) genesis

e) agenesis

202. Transformation of information in chains of nucleoids in DNA molecule:

a) genes expression

b) genes repression

c) genes translation

d) generation

e) genes transduction

203. Set of chromosomes of particular kind:

a) genome

b) genotype

c) gene pool

d) genetics

e) gender

204. Group of heredity genes:

a) genotype

b) phenotype

c) genome

d) genesis

e) producer

205. Cell of hybrids, having genetic difference:

a) heterokaryon

b) homocaryon

c) gibberellin

d) diploid

e) haploid

206. Hybrid, without genetic difference of cell:

a) homocaryon

b) heterokaryon

c) gibberellin

d) correlation

e) determination

207. Accumulation of chromosomes in female gametophyte in conditions in vitro:

a) gynogenesis

b) histogenesis

c) cytogenesis

d) heterosis

e) genome

208. Formation of tissue:

a) histogenesis

b) cytogenesis

c) organogenesis

d) androgenesis

e) gametogenesis

209. Increasing the number of chromosomes from haploid in 3-4 times:

a) polyploid

b) plasmid

c) diploid

d) aneuploid

e) genome

210. Cells, without nucleus:

a) procaryotes

b) eucaryotes

c) diploids

d) ptoplasts

e) haploids

211. Cells without cellular wall in the result of enzyme action or mechanical influence:

a) protoplast

b) procaryote

c) eucaryote

d) oncoplast

e) stem

212. False fertilization:

a) pseudogamy

b) plasmid

c) pathotoxin

d) megaspory

e) liposomy

213. Enzyme, splited DNA molecule:

a) restrictase

b) macerosm

c) lypase

d) amilase

e) synthetase

214. Site of nucleic acid or protein:

a) site

b) locus

c) line

d) genome

e) idiotype

215. Unit of heredity:

a) gene

b) genotype

c) genome

d) phenotype

e) site

216. Genes, located outside nuclear, in mitochondrion and plastids:

a) cytoplasmic

b) amplification

c) genesis

d) proliferative

e) apical

217. Appearance of genotype:

a) genesis

b) diploid

c) mitosis

d) replication

e) mutation

218. One of cells, growing from pollen, participating in process of fertilisation:

a) generative

b) vegetative

c) expressive

d) repressive

e) protoplast

219. Field of molecular and cellular genetics:

a) genetic engineering

b) biotechnology

c) general genetics

d) bionics

e) biotransformation

220. To the types of express-methods of appraisal of callus cultures are related:

a) radioimmunechemical and immune-enzyme methods

b) immune-enzyme and relax

c) radioimmunechemical and transmission

d) immune-enzyme and X-ray phase

e) chromatographic and X-ray phase

221. Creation of immobility of cells:

a) immobilization

b) relaxation

c) sensoric

d) amplification

e) inhibition

222. Keeping of cells in liquid nitrogen at temperature -196 оС:

a) cryoconservation

b) cryoscopy

c) passivation

d) amplification

e) inhibition

223. Cover tissue of cereal croup:

a) integument

b) inoculum

c) passage

d) immobile

e) isogen

224. Cultivation of biomass with influence of photoelement:

a) turbidostat

b) chemostat

c) flow-open

d) flow-closed

e) flow- stagnant

225. Cultivation of cells with strict concentration of growth-retarding:

a) chemostat

b) turbidostat

c) flow-open

d) flow-closed

e) deep

226. Passage of cells in ware with nutrient medium:

a) passage

b) intron

c) exon

d) induction

e) inoculum

227. Accumulation of cells in nutrient medium:

a) population

b) generation

c) passage

d) suspension

e) cycle

228. Method of construction of cells of new type on the basis of their cultivation, hybridization and reconstruction:

a) engineering

b) generation

c) segregation

d) recombination

e) retranslation

229. Substances which are don’t necessary for cells:

a) secondary metabolites

b) primary metabolites

c) cell’s population

d) suspension

e) inhibitors

230. Genes – swelling’s stimulants:

a) oncogene

b) nucellus

c) promoter

d) translator

e) locus

231. Destruction of chromosomes in hybrid, appearance of new genotypes:

a) segregation

b) site

c) recombination

d) reverse

e) correlation

232. Synthesis of RNA:

a) transcription

b) splicing

c) metabolism

d) recombination

e) replication

233. Synthesis of protein in rybosome:

a) translation

b) correlation

c) transcription

d) splicing

e) induction

234. In the capacity of appraisal of callus cultures in last time applies:

a) express-method

b) classic method

c) repress-method

d) sensor-method

e) relax-method

235. Cells, growing in test tube:

a) in vitro

b) in vivo

c) express

d) suspension

e) intron

236. Cells cultivated in organism:

a) in vivo

b) in vitro

c) express

d) suspension

e) intron

237. Destruction and dissolving of intercellular substance:

a) maceration

b) locating

c) processing

d) correlation

e) splicing

238. Development of organism or form’s growth:

a) morphogenesis

b) mutation

c) rhyzogenesis

d) mutagenesis

e) meiosis

239. Appearance of mutations under factors influence:

a) mutagenesis

b) gystogenesis

c) onthogenesis

d) phylogenesis

e) translation

240. Physical and chemical agents: ionized ray, light, temperature:

a) mutagens

b) antigens

c) promoters

d) producers

e) sensors

241. Method of identification of enzymes’ sensitivity:

a) immunoenzyme

b) immobile

c) induction

d) isogenic

e) histochemical

242. Radioimmunochemical and immune-enzyme methods related to:

a) express-method

b) classic method

c) repress-method

d) sensor-method

e) relax-method

243. Preparation of cell to defined path of development of organism:

a) determination

b) dedifferentiation

c) differentiation

d) diploidization

e) translation

244. Difference between cells and tissues of plants connected with its functional specialization:

a) differentiation

b) dedifferentiation

c) diploidization

d) determination

e) amplification

245. Cultivation of cells in liquid medium and in device in conditions in vitro:

a) suspension

b) agarization

c) callus

d) biotranslation

e) bioelectrochemistry

246. Location of gene in particular place:

a) locus

b) line

c) clone

d) codon

e) triplet

247. Part of thickened maternal bag in plant’s flower:

a) ovary

b) ring

c) stigma

d) style

e) apical point

248. Place, where ripen mother cells:

a) embryo sac

b) seeds’ buds

c) apical point

d) catalyst

e) functional center

249. Introduction in culture of foreign genetic information:

a) transformation

b) transploid

c) transcription

d) translation

e) deduction

250. Triple content of nucleus’ chromosomes:

a) triploid

b) tetraploid

c) haploid

d) diploid

e) pentaploid

251. Exponential phase called another:

a) logarithmic


b) linear


c) stationary

d) dead

e) latent

252. Which two periods make up life-cycle of cell?

a) interphase and mitotic

b) anaphase and telophase

c) interphase and anaphase

d) telophase and interphase

e) prophase and mitotic

253. At meiosis of cell first occurs:

a) division of nucleus

b) division of cytoplasm

c) formation of partition

d) division of ribosome

e) division of mitochondrion

254. The longest phase of mitosis is:

a) prophase

b) telophase

c) metaphase

d) anaphase

e) all phases take the same time

255. The shortest phase of mitosis is:

a) anaphase

b) telophase

c) metaphase

d) prophase

e) all phases take the same time

256. Which ions are necessary for existence of cells?

a) of sodium and potassium

b) of calcium and sodium

c) of magnesium and potassium

d) of magnesium and sodium

e) of calcium and magnesium

257. Amino acids in protein molecule connected between each other by which kind of connection:


a) peptide


b) hydrogen


c) ionic


d) covalent


e) disulphide

258. Indicate peptide bond:


a) -СОNH-


b) -COOH-


c) -NH2


d) -CH-


e) - CH2OH –

259. Third phase of growing of callus cells:

a) linear


b) logarithmic


c) stationary


d) dead


e) latent

260. Fifth phase of growing of callus cells:

a) stationary


b) logarithmic


c) linear


d) dead


e) latent

261. Spare buds:

a) adventive

b) haploid

c) diploid

d) procariotic

e) apex

262. Loosing of pigment by organism:

a) albinism

b) beccross

c) vector

d) colorblindness

e) destruction

263. Induction of haploids in culture of male and female gametophyte called:

a) androgenesis

b) gemmogenesis

c) rhyzogenesis

d) gynogenesis

e) organogenesis

264. Induction of haploids in culture of female gametophyte called:

a) gynogenesis

b) gemmogenesis

c) rhyzogenesis

d) androgenesis

e) organogenesis

265. False fertilization, at which embryo developed from unfertilized ovule:

a) pseudogamy

b) monogamy

c) polygami

d) androgenesis

e) gynogenesis

266. Formation of haploid plants from embryoids called:

a) direct androgenesis

b) indirect androgenesis

c) direct sporogenesis

d) indirect sporogenesis

e) gynogenesis

267. Apical part of stem or root:

a) apex

b) allele

c) meristem

d) cambium

e) parenchyma

268. Reproduction of organisms, without gamic process:

a) apomixic

b) apex

c) amplification

d) regeneration

e) proliferation

269. Observance of conditions of full sterility:

a) aseptic

b) degradation

c) degassion

d) beccross

e) genesis

270. Living cells are systems:

a) open

b) closed

c) circled

d) isolated

e) half-opened

271. Basic structure units of protein are:


a) amino acids


b) fat acids and glycerine


c) glucose and fructose


d) dicarboxylic acids

e) nucleosides

272. Sedimentation of particles under power of gravity:


a) sedimentation


b) sensabilization


c) flocculation


d) coagulation

e) osmosis

273. Formation tissue:

a) meristem

b) parenchyme

c) callus

d) root

e) bud

274. High ratio auxin/cytokinin causes:

a) rhyzogenesis

b) gemmogenesis

c) histogenesis

d) cytogenesis

e) callus genesis

275. Low ratio auxin/cytokinin conducive to:

a) gemmogenesis

b) rhyzogenesis

c) histogenesis

d) cytogenesis

e) callus genesis

276. Formative tissue, forming others:

a) meristem

b) embryoid

c) parenchyma

d) callus

e) proliferation

277. Recurring heterosis:

a) beccross

b) mutation

c) genome

d) mutagenesis

e) cloning

278. Device in biotechnological manufacture on growing of cells:

a) bioreactor

b) laminar

c) autoclave

d) distillator

e) septic tank

279. Glassiness:

a) vitrification

b) ammonification

c) nitrification

d) homogenization

e) fermentation

280. Structures, which join to itself one or another genes and transformed them in another cells:

a) vectors

b) haploids

c) diploids

d) strains

e) chromosomes

281. Types of plants, took in space by Kazakhstan cosmonauts:

a) wheat

b) melon

c) potato

d) nightshade

e) carrot

282. With cells of which plant cosmonauts made experiments:

a) corn

b) oats

c) apricot

d) potato

e) tomato

283. Process of organs, tissues and cells formation:

a) morphogenesis

b) parthenogenesis

c) embryogenesis

d) rhyzogenesis

e) gemmogenesis

284. Asexual reproduction in culture of cells and tissues, at which arising plants genetically identical to initial sample:

a) clonal

b) amitotic

c) mitotic

d) meiotic

e) budding

285. Forth stage of clonal reproduction:

a) planting of plants in soil

b) introduction of explants in culture

c) rooting of duplicated bines

d) reproduction

e) cells cultivation

286. Form of variety of gene:

a) allele

b) albinism

c) beccross

d) locus

e) site

287. Changing of substance in another type by biological way:

a) biotransformation

b) bioremediation

c) bioengineering

d) biodestruction

e) cryoconservation

288. Branch of science and manufacture of economic important substance and products:

a) biotechnology

b) genetic engineering

c) nanotechnology

d) cellular selection

e) agrotechnology

289. Hormones of indol group:

a) auxin

b) intron

c) amylase

d) gibberellin

e) pyridoxine

290. Part of callus tissue planting on fresh firm nutrient medium:

a) passage

b) inoculum

c) regenerant

d) explant

e) cybrid

291. Increasing the number of genes in genome:

a) amplification

b) replification

c) differentiation

d) callus

e) mitosis

292. Part of DNA molecule:

a) gene

b) locus

c) chromosome

d) lysosome

e) protein

293. Gene collection:

a) gen

b) phenotype

c) chromosome

d) site

e) diploid

294. Formation of germ-like structures:

a) embryoidogenesis

b) rhyzophilogenesis

c) gemmogenesis

d) phylogenesis

e) ontogenesis

295. As a result of morphogenesis formed:

a) regenerant

b) callus

c) strain

d) explant

e) embryoid

296. First stage of clonal reproduction:

a) bringing of explants in culture

b) reproduction in fact

c) establishment of duplicated bines

d) planting of plants in soil

e) cells cultivation

297. Plant, receiving by asexual, i.e. vegetative reproduction:

a) clone

b) callus

c) regenerant

d) explant

e) animal unit

298. 6-furfurilaminopurine:

a) cynetin


b) zeatine


c) auxin


d) glycine

e) pyroxene

299. Number of phases of growing of callus tissues:

a) 6


b) 4


c) 7


d) 2


e) 9

300. First phase of growing of callus cells:

a) latent


b) logarithmic


c) stationary


d) dead


e) linear


1. Cultivation of cells in artificial media in aseptic conditions:

a) in vitro

b) in vivo

c) callus

d) explant

e) in situ

2. Particular type of tissue, representative accumulation of undifferentiated cells:

a) callus

b) explant

c) regenerate

d) clon

e) locus

3. Reduction cells division:

a) meiosis

b) mitosis

c) kinesis

d) telophase

e) amitosis

4. Division of somatic cells:

a) mitosis

b) amitosis

c) meiosis

d) transcription

e) interphase

5. Interconnection of organs with each other:

a) correlation

b) competence

c) determinative

d) cryoprotection

e) sublimation

6. Property of a vegetative cell to realise the genetic information:

a) totipotency

b) differentiation

c) regeneration

d) complementarity

e) induction

7. Aseptic received plant with the developed roots and the runaways, generated in culture, that is in vitro:

a) regenerant

b) explant

c) intron

d) embryoid

e) metabolite

8. G.Gaberlandt formulate cells principles in:

a) 1902 y.

b) 1899 y.

c) 1914 y.

d) 1907 y.

e) 1900 y.

9. The hypothesis of totypotency has been put forward by:

a) G.Gaberlandt

b) K.Rehinger

c) V.Robbins

d) E.Davidson

e) F.White

10. Who was first from the scientists who begin to grow isolated parts and organs of plants?

a) K.Rehinger

b) G.Gaberlandt

c) Т.Murasige

d) F.Skug

e) F.White

11. Principles of cells’ cultivation clear formulated by:

a) G.Gaberlandt

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbinson

d) Т.Murasige

e) F.White

12. Nutrient medium, which was used by G.Gaberlandt in experiments:

a) Knop

b) White

c) Gamborg

d) Hogland

e) Sniders

13. R.Rehinger tried to grow buds, cuts of the roots on:

a) moistured sand

b) agar medium

c) liquid medium

d) different media

e) firm surface

14. Growing of isolated parts and organs of plants first began by:

a) German scientists

b) alchemists

c) Russian scientists

d) scientists from different countries

e) English scientists

15. R.Harrison has grew in lymphatic liquid:

a) frog’s neuroblast

b) callus tissue

c) potato’s cells

d) cell’s embryoid

e) frog’s lymphoblast

16. Achievements of which scientist related to cambial tissues of willow and carrot:

a) F.White

b) E.Davidson

c) V.Robbins

d) V.Kotte

e) G.Gaberlandt

17. Scientist, which has supported continuous long-term culture of roots’ tips for 30 years:

a) R.Gotre

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbins

d) Т.Murasige

e) D.Wotson

18. Scientist with collaborators, which have investigated growth of buds on pieces of tobacco steams:

a) F.Skug

b) V.Kotte

c) V.Robbins

d) Т.Murasige

e) D.Wotson

19. Substances, stimulating cellular division:

a) cytokinines

b) auxins

c) vitamins

d) macroelements

e) microelements

20. Widely used nutrient medium, which was created in 1962 y:

a) Murasige-Skug

b) White

c) Shenk-Hil’debrandt

d) Nich and Nich

e) Gamborg-Evelang

21. Growth stimulating substance:

a) kinetin

b) mesoinosit

c) vitamin

d) bichromate

e) carbogel

22. Culture, cultivated in liquid medium:

a) suspension

b) tumor

c) callus

d) clonal

e) somatic

23. Since which year begin to cultivate plants’ cells in Soviet Union?

a) 1944

b) 1930

c) 1980

d) 1934

e) 1994

24. Since which year begin to cultivate cells in Kazakhstan?

a) 1975

b) 1955

c) 1995

d) 2001

e) 1948

25. Who is founder of biotechnology in Kazakhstan?

a) M.Aithozhin

b) G.Ualihanov

c) S.Columbaev

d) А.Udel’skaya

e) Zh.Zhardemaliev

26. Tissue, cultivated in “in vitro” conditions:

a) callus

b) strain

c) suspension

d) explant

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