About 200 years ago the pace of technological change in western society began to quicken. Wind, water, and animal power, with their limitations of place and capacity, were supplemented and then replaced by the steam engine, which went on to power the factories of the industrial revolution. The railroad made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances. The telegraph and, later, the telephone carried communications across the countryside. Electric lighting supplanted* the dim glow of candles, kerosene, and gas lights.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the notion of progress was closely linked with technological development, and that linkage intensified in the following decades. The automobile and the airplane changed not only travel but the nature of our cities and towns. Radio and then television brought more of the outside world into everyone’s homes. Knowledge about the causes of diseases brought new treatments and preventive measures. Computers appeared, and soon the transistor made them smaller, more powerful, more accessible, and cheaper.
Today, the system by which research and development leads to new products is fundamentally different than it was in the nineteenth century. To the role of the individual inventor has been added the power of organized scientific research and technological innovation. Organized research and development, which are increasingly international in character, have greatly increased the production of new knowledge. Deeper understanding of living organisms is leading toward cures of diseases once thought untreatable. Basic insights in materials science enable the development of structures that are lighter, stronger, and more durable than anything available before. The computer and novel modes of communication, such as optical fibers, bring new, interactive modes of work and more capable machinery. These new devices and new ways of working, in turn, speed the growth and dissemination of new knowledge.
The accumulation of scientific knowledge and new technologies has transformed human life. Technologies have helped provide many - though far from all – people with standards of warmth, cleanliness, nutrition, medical care, transportation, and entertainment far beyond those of even the wealthy two centuries ago. They have also presented us with difficult questions about how to use science and technology most effectively to meet human needs.
The rapid rate of material progress can continue, but it is not inevitable. The extent to which the products of science and technology are useful depends on the needs of society. Science and technology have had a major impact on society, and their impact is still growing. By drastically changing our means of communication, the way we work, our housing, clothes, and food, our methods of transportation, and, indeed, even the length and quality of life itself, science has generated changes in the moral values and basic philosophies of mankind.
* supplant [sə'plɑːnt] = replace
Упражнение 20. Соотнесите английское словосочетание и его эквивалент на русском языке.
|1) the pace of technological change||a) значительно превосходящий...|
|2) to increase the production of new knowledge||b) обеспечивать людей чем-либо|
|3) to provide people with||c) считаться неизлечимым|
|4) far beyond||d) темп технологических изменений|
|5) to be thought untreatable||e) повышать разработку новых знаний|
|6) to speed the growth of new knowledge||f) удовлетворять потребности|
|7) to meet needs||g) создавать изменения|
|8) to have a major impact on||h) мощь организованного научного исследования|
|9) to generate changes in||i) ускорять рост нового знания|
|10) power of organized scientific research||j) лечение и профилактические мероприятия|
|11) treatments and preventive measures||k) оказывать большое влияние на|
Упражнение 21. Прочитайте текст и заполните таблицу технологическими достижениями, связанными с данным периодом.
|19th century||20th century|
Упражнение 22. Выпишите из текста в тезисной форме, какие изменения технический прогресс принес в нашу жизнь.
- increased production of new knowledge
Упражнение 23. Прочитайте текст еще раз и дополните данные ниже предложения.
1. The steam engine replaced ….
2. First the …, and then the … and the … made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances.
3. In the nineteenth century, most inventions were made by ….
4. The production of new knowledge increased due to ….
5. Cures of diseases once thought untreatable is now possible due to …
6. Technological development created new notion of …, including entertainment.
7. Science and technology have drastically changed ….
Упражнение 24. Задайте вопрос так, чтобы пропущенное в предложении было ответом на ваш вопрос. Используйте вопрос в скобках.
Example: Technology refers to …. (What … to?)
- What does technology refer to?
1. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques …. (What … for?)
2. When we speak of technology today, we mean …. (What?)
3. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with …. (What … with?)
4. Technology has created…. (What?)
5. Thomas Edison built on … in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. (What … on?)
Упражнение 25. А.Подберите ответ к вопросам из упражнения 24.
a) the early experimentsof Faraday and Henry.
b) to make their lives easier.
c) the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods.
d) industrial technology.
e) the basis for our modern society.
Б. Дайте ваш ответ на поставленные вопросы. Выскажите свою точку зрения, используя данные ниже фразы:
I think/ believe/ consider …
In my opinion/ view …
I’m of the opinion that …
To my mind …
Упражнение 26.Выразите согласие или несогласие с данными ниже утверждениями, используя соответствующие фразы.
|Согласие||Частичное несогласие||Полное несогласие|
|It is true. That’s right. I quite agree (with you). I fully agree (with you). I certainly agree (with you).||That is partly true. You are notquite right. It is not entirely true. I can’t fully agree with you/it. Maybe you are right.||I don’t think so. I can’t agree with you/ it. You’re mistaken. You are wrong. I totally disagree.|
1. Scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet.
2. Science and technology are not closely related.
3. Modern technologies depend on the application of scientific knowledge and principles.
4. Technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.
5. In the 20th century scientists made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics.
6. Increased dependency on modern tools like calculators and spell checkers has reduced our creativity and intelligence.
7. Pure science is of no importance now.
8. Modern technologies make communication easier but destroy face-to-face communication.
9. Technologies steal our time.
Упражнение 27. Выскажите свою точку зрения о роли науки и техники в нашей жизни.
Упражнение 28. A. Познакомьтесь со структурой эссе, предложенной ниже. Переведите данные ниже фразы. Б. Напишите эссе на тему «What technology can't people live without?», используя предложенные вам фразы.
1. Введение: обозначьте тему, проблему, выскажите свое мнение
In my opinion, … / From my point of view, … / As far as I am concerned, …
As for me …
I believe that…/ It seems to me that…
I am in favour of… / I am against the idea of…
Some people say that…
It is said/believed that…
There is no doubt that…
It cannot be denied that…
It goes without saying that…
We must admit that…
2. Основная часть – раскройте тему, приведите доводы, аргументы.
The main argument against/in favour is…
First of all …
The first thing I would like to consider is…
To begin with, …/ To start with, …
Despite the fact that…/ In spite of the fact that…
On the one hand, … /On the other hand, …
Besides,…/ In addition,…
What is more, …/ Moreover, …/ More than that, …
However, … / …, though
as / since
for this reason
therefore/ that is why
because of /as a result of /owing to /due to/ as a consequence of
3. Заключение – общий вывод по теме
To sum up, …
To conclude, I would argue that…
On this basis, I can conclude that…
In conclusion, I would like to stress that…
All in all, I believe that…