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TABLE OF CONTENTS


A GRAMMAR

OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

В. Л. КАУШАНСКАЯ, Р. Л. КОВНЕР, О. Н. КОЖЕВНИКОВА,

Е. В. ПРОКОФЬЕВА, 3. М. РАЙНЕС, С. Е. СКВИРСКАЯ,

Ф. Я. ЦЫРЛИНА

ГРАММАТИКА

АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

ПОСОБИЕ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИХ ИНСТИТУТОВ

Под редакцией проф. Б. А. Ильиша

Второе издание, переработанное

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ УЧЕБНО-ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОЕ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО

МИНИСТЕРСТВА ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЯ РСФСР

ЛЕНИНГРАДСКОЕ ОТДЕЛЕНИЕ

Ленинград 1963


FOREWORD

The object of this book is to give a course of English grammar for students specializing in the English language.

The book includes Accidence, i. e. the parts of speech and morphological categories, and Syntax, i. e. the sentence and the parts of the sentence. The rules are illustrated by examples taken from English and American authors of the 19th and 20th centuries.

The material of the book has been used for many years in teaching students of the Pedagogical institute of Foreign Languages in Leningrad, and has thus been put to the test of practical work, in preparing the material for print the authors have cosiderably enlarged it.

Exercises on all topics treated in the manual are published in a separate issue, arranged in accordance with the chapters of the present book.

The authors wish to acknowledge their obligations to the teachers of the Department of Foreign Languages and the Philological Department of Leningrad University, as well as to the teachers of the Hertzen Pedagogical Institute and all the strangers, who have reviewed the book and made a number of valuable suggestions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction. Grammatical structure of the English language




Part I. ACCIDENCE

General classification of the parts of speech

Chapter I. THE NOUN

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Morphological characteristics

§ 3. Syntactical characteristics

§ 4. Morphological composition

§ 5. Classification

§ 6. The category of number

§ 7. The category of case

Chapter II. THE ARTICLE

§ 1. General notion

Use of articles with common nouns

§ 2–4. Class nouns

§ 5–7. Nouns of material

§ 8–11. Abstract nouns

Use of articles with proper nouns

§ 12. Names of persons

§ 13. Geographical names

§ 14. Names of hotels, ships, newspapers and magazines

§ 15. Names of cardinal points

§ 16. Names of months and days

§ 17. Nouns modified by proper nouns

Use of articles with nouns in some set expressions

§ 18. The use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions

§ 19. The use of the definite article with nouns in set expressions

§ 20. Nouns in set expressions used without an article

§ 21. The use of articles with predicative nouns

§ 22. The use of articles with nouns in apposition

§ 23. The use of articles with nouns used in address

§ 24. Place of the article

§ 25. Ways of expressing the meaning of the English articles in Russian

Special difficulties in the use of articles

§ 26. The use of articles with the nouns day, night, morning, evening

§ 27. The use of articles with names of seasons

§ 28. The use of articles with the nouns school, college, bed, prison, jail

§ 29. The use of articles with the noun town

§ 30. The use of articles with the names of meals

§ 31. The use of articles with names of languages

Use of articles with nouns modified by certain adjectives, pronouns and numerals

§ 32. Most

§ 33. Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little

§ 34. Two, the two; three, the three, etc.

§ 35. The second, a second

§ 36. Another, the other

§ 37. Last, the last

§ 38. Next, the next

§ 39. A number, the number

Omission of the article

Chapter III. THE ADJECTIVE

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Morphological characteristics

§ 3. Spelling rules

§ 4. Syntactical characteristics

§ 5. Morphological composition

§ 6. Classification

§ 7. Grammatical characteristics of qualitative adjectives

§ 8. Grammatical characteristics of relative adjectives

§ 9. Substantivized adjectives

Chapter IV. THE PRONOUN

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Classification

§ 3. Personal pronouns

§ 4. Possessive pronouns

§ 5. Reflexive pronouns

§ 6. Reciprocal pronouns

§ 7. Demonstrative pronouns

§ 8. Interrogative pronouns

§ 9. Relative pronouns

§ 10. Conjunctive pronouns

§ 11. Defining pronouns

§ 12. Indefinite pronouns

§ 13. Negative pronouns

Chapter V. THE NUMERAL



§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Cardinal numerals

§ 3. The functions of cardinal numerals in a sentence

§ 4. Ordinal numerals

§ 5. The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence

Chapter VI. THE WORDS OF THE CATEGORY OF STATE

§ 1. Definition

§ 2–4. Morphological composition and use

Chapter VII. THE VERB

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Morphological structure

§ 3. Basic forms

§ 4. Syntactic function

§ 5. Transitive and intransitive verbs

§ 6. Lexical character

§ 7–10. Grammatical categories

Tenses in the Active Voice

The Indefinite form

The Present Indefinite

§ 1. The formation of the Present Indefinite

§ 2. The use of the Present Indefinite

The Past Indefinite

§ 3. The formation of the Past Indefinite

§ 4. The use of the Past Indefinite

The Future Indefinite

§ 5. The formation of the Future Indefinite

§ 6. The use of the Future Indefinite

The Future Indefinite in the Past

§ 7. The formation of the Future Indefinite in the Past

§ 8. The use of the Future Indefinite in the Past

The Continuous form

The Present Continuous

§ 9. The formation of the Present Continuous

§ 10. The use of the Present Continuous

The Past Continuous

§ 11. The formation of the Past Continuous

§ 12. The use of the Past Continuous

The Future Continuous

§ 13. The formation of the Future Continuous

§ 14. The use of the Future Continuous

The Future Continuous in the Past

§ 15. The formation of the Future Continuous in the Past

§ 16. The use of the Future Continuous in the Past

Verbs not used in the Continuous form

The Perfect form

The Present Perfect

§ 17. The formation of the Present Perfect

§ 18. The use of the Present Perfect

§ 19. The Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect

The Past Perfect

§ 20. The formation of the Past Perfect

§ 21. The use of the Past Perfect

§ 22. The Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect

The Future Perfect

§ 23. The formation of the Future Perfect

§ 24. The use of the Future Perfect

The Future Perfect in the Past

§ 25. The formation of the Future Perfect in the Past

§ 26. The use of the Future Perfect in the Past

The Perfect Continuous form

The Present Perfect Continuous

§ 27. The formation of the Present Perfect Continuous

§ 28. The use of the Present Perfect Continuous

§29.The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Present Continuous

§ 30. The Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous Exclusive

The Past Perfect Continuous

§ 31. The formation of the Past Perfect Continuous

§ 32. The use of the Past Perfect Continuous



§ 33. The Past Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Past Continuous

The Future Perfect Continuous

§ 34. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous

§ 35. The use of the Future Perfect Continuous

The Future Perfect Continuous in the Past

§ 36. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past

§ 37. The use of the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past

The Passive Voice

§ 1. The formation of the Passive Voice

§ 2. The use of the Passive Voice

§ 3. The use of tenses in the Passive Voice

§ 4. Ways of translating the Passive Voice into Russian

§ 5. Uses of the Passive Voice peculiar to the English language

§ 6. The verb to be + Participle II

Modal Verbs

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Can

§ 3. May

§ 4. Must

§ 5. Should and ought

§ 6. To be+ Infinitive

§ 7. To have + Infinitive

§ 8. Shall

§ 9. Will

§ 10. Would

§ 11. Dare

§ 12. Need

Mood

The Indicative Mood

The Imperative Mood

The Subjunctive Mood

§ 1. General notion

§ 2. Synthetic forms

§ 3. Analytical forms

§ 4. The forms of the Indicative Mood used to express the same meaning as is expressed by the Subjunctive Mood

The use of the Subjunctive Mood

§ 5. Simple sentences

§ 6. Conditional sentences

§ 7. Adverbial clauses of purpose

§ 8. Adverbial clauses of concession

§ 9. Adverbial clauses of time and place

§ 10. Adverbial clauses of comparison

§ 11. Predicative clauses

§ 12. Subject clauses

§ 13. Object clauses

§ 14. Attributive appositive clauses

§ 15. Attributive clauses modifying the noun time in the principal clause

§ 16. Emotional use of the Subjunctive Mood

§ 17. Ways of rendering the Subjunctive Mood in Russian

Chapter VIII. THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (THE VERBALS)

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. The characteristic traits of the verbals

The Participle

§ 3. General notion

§ 4. Double nature of the participle

§ 5. Tense distinctions

§ 6. Voice distinctions

§ 7. Functions of Participle I

§ 8. Functions of Participle II

§ 9. Predicative constructions with the participle

§ 10. The Objective Participial Construction

§ 11. The Subjective Participial Construction

§ 12. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

§ 13. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction

§ 14. Absolute constructions without a participle

§ 15. Punctuation

The Gerund

§ 16. General notion

§ 17. Double nature of the gerund

§ 18. Tense distinctions

§ 19. Voice distinctions

§ 20. Predicative constructions with the gerund

§ 21. The use of the gerund

§ 22. The gerund and the infinitive

§ 23. The functions of the gerund

§ 24. The gerund and the participle

§ 25. The gerund and the verbal noun

The Infinitive

§ 26. General notion

§ 27. Tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive

§ 28. Voice distinctions

§ 29. The use of the infinitive without the particle to

§ 30. The functions of the infinitive

§ 31. Infinitive constructions

§ 32. The Objective-with-the Infinitive Construction

§ 33. The Subjective Infinitive Construction

§ 34. The for-to-Infinitive Construction

§ 35. The Infinitive with the expressions to be sorry, to be glad

Chapter IX. THE ADVERB

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Morphological structure

§ 3. Degrees of comparison

§ 4. Classification

Chapter X. THE MODAL WORDS

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Classification

§ 3. Use

§ 4. Modal words and adverbs

Chapter XI. THE INTERJECTION

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Classification

§ 3. Morphological composition

Chapter XII. THE PREPOSITION

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Morphological structure

§ 3. Classification

§ 4. Prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions

§ 5. Prepositions and postpositions

Chapter XIII. THE CONJUNCTION

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Morphological structure

§ 3. Classification

§ 4. Coordinating conjunctions

§ 5. Subordinating conjunctions

Chapter XIV. THE PARTICLE

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Classification

Part II. SYNTAX

Chapter XV. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

§ 1. Definition

§ 2. Classification

§ 3–4. Structure

Parts of the sentence

The principal parts of the sentence

The subject

§ 5. Definition

§ 6. Ways of expressing the subject

§ 7. It as the subject of the sentence

The predicate

§ 8. Definition

§ 9. The simple predicate

§ 10. The predicate expressed by a phraseological unit

§ 11. The compound predicate

§ 12. The compound nominal predicate

§ 13. The predicative

§ 14. The Objective Predicative

§ 15. The compound verbal predicate

§ 16. The compound verbal modal predicate

§ 17. The compound verbal aspect predicate

§ 18. Mixed types of predicate

Agreement of the predicate with the subject

§ 19. General notion

§ 20. Rules of agreement

§ 21. Agreement of the predicate with the subject expressed by a syntactic word-group

The secondary parts of the sentence

The object

§ 22. Definition

§ 23. Ways of expressing the object

§ 24. Kinds of objects

§ 25. The direct object

§ 26. The indirect object

§ 27. The complex object

§ 28. The cognate object

The attribute

§ 29. Definition

§ 30. Ways of expressing the attribute

§ 31. The apposition

§ 32. The close apposition

§ 33. The loose or detached apposition

The adverbial modifier

§ 34. Definition and classification

§ 35. Ways of expressing the adverbial modifier

Detached (loose) parts of the sentence

§ 36. Definition

§ 37. The detached adverbial modifier

§ 38. The detached attribute

§ 39. The detached object

The independent elements of the sentence

§ 40. Definition

§ 41. Parenthesis

Sentences with homogeneous parts

Chapter XVI. WORD ORDER

§ 1. General remarks

§ 2–4. Inverted order of words

§ 5. Position of the object

§ 6. Position of the attribute

§ 7. Position of adverbial modifiers

Chapter XVII. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

The compound sentence

§ 1. General notion

§ 2. Types of coordination

The complex sentence

§ 3. General notion

§ 4. Subject clauses

§ 5. Predicative clauses

§ 6. Object clauses

§ 7. Attributive clauses

§ 8. Attributive relative clauses

§ 9. Attributive appositive clauses

§ 10. The use of relative pronouns in attributive relative clauses

§ 11. Adverbial clauses

§ 12. Adverbial clauses of time

§ 13. Adverbial clauses of place

§ 14. Adverbial clauses of cause

§ 15. Adverbial clauses of purpose

§ 16. Adverbial clauses of condition

§ 17. Adverbial clauses of concession

§ 18. Adverbial clauses of result

§ 19. Adverbial clauses of manner

§ 20. Adverbial clauses of comparison

§ 21. Polysemantic conjunctions

The compound-complex sentence

Parenthetical clauses

Chapter XVIII. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

§ 1. Definition

§ 2–5. General rules

§ 6. Tenses in English and in Russian

§ 7. Tenses in object clauses

§ 8. Tenses in conventional direct speech

§ 9. Tenses in attributive relative clauses and adverbial clauses of cause, result, comparison, and concession

§ 10. Tenses in subject clauses and predicative clauses

Chapter XIX. INDIRECT SPEECH

§ 1–2. General remarks

§ 3. Indirect statements

§ 4. Indirect questions

§ 5. Indirect orders and requests

§ 6. Indirect offers, suggestions, and advice

§ 7. Indirect exclamations

§ 8. Greetings and leave-taking

Chapter XX. PUNCTUATION

§ 1. General remarks

The simple sentence

§ 2. Homogeneous members

§ 3. Detached members

§ 4. Parenthetical words, groups of words, and clauses

§ 5. Interjections

§ 6. Nouns in address

The compound sentence

§ 7. Coordinate clauses joined asyndetically

§ 8. Coordinate clauses joined by copulative conjunctions

§ 9. Coordinate clauses joined by disjunctive conjunctions

§ 10. Coordinate clauses joined by adversative conjunctions

§ 11. Clauses joined by causative-consecutive conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs

§ 12. Sentences containing direct speech

The complex sentence

§ 13. Subject clauses

§ 14. Predicative clauses

§ 15. Object clauses

§ 16. Attributive clauses

§ 17. Adverbial clauses

§ 18. Complex sentences consisting of two or more homogeneous clauses

§ 19. Declarative non-exclamatory sentences

§ 20. Sentences expressing a question

§ 21. Exclamatory sentences

§ 22. Unfinished sentences

INTRODUCTION







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