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Vocabulary Notes. trade facilitation содействие торговле




trade facilitation содействие торговле

to enhance усиливать, улучшать (обычно какое-л. положительное свойство)

to make a contribution делать пожертвования, взносы

foreign counterparts иностранные коллеги

non-judicial внесудебный; несудебный

revenue projections планирование бюджета

Exercise 3. Explain the meaning of the following words in the text: trade facilitation; to enhance national competitiveness; budget contributor; crossroads; crime interdiction; exposed to new products; routine access to; reliable trade statistics; to work out revenue projections; to secure revenue; preventing smuggling.

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.

1. What is meant by Customs’ unique observation position?

2. How do Customs cooperate with their foreign counterparts?

3. What do Customs do to protect society?

4. What are the traditional roles of Customs?

Exercise 5. Study the following chart.

Verbs with prepositions or adverbs are sometimes referred to as multi-word verbs, or phrasal verbs.
Here are some adverbs which are used in phrasal verbs: about, along, around, away, back, behind, by, down, forward, in, on, off, out, over, round, through, up.
Some phrasal verbs are easy to understand. She asked me to come in. The man turned round and stared at me. But many phrasal verbs are idiomatic. The verb+ adverb has a special meaning. Why did you turn down the job? (= refused) I can’t make outthat sign. (= see clearly)
When a phrasal verb has an object, the object can go either before or after the adverb. I wrote the number down. I wrote down the number. A long object goes after the adverb. Customs have carried out a number of enforcement raids. A pronoun (it, them, etc.) always goes before the adverb. If you feel hot in your coat, why don’t you take it off?

Exercise 6.Match the underlined phrasal verbs in sentences to the more formal words from the box. Mind the forms of the verbs. Consult the dictionary if necessary.

to implement to finish to take a note of to arrest to protect to fulfill to happen to export to calculate to refuse to abolish

1. Slavery was done away with in the mid-19th century in America and in Russia.

2. He carried out a new economic plan.

3. Work out how much stamp duty is payable on a home.

4. I'm going to have to cancel our lunch – something's come up.

5. He said that, whatever market-based solution was adopted they all, almost invariably, would end up with the customer paying more for energy.

6. “Thank the Lord they didn't carry out their threat”.

7. Write down your plan and keep it where you can always see it.




8. “How could you turn down such a fantastic job?”

9. Weapons are being illegally brought from other countries.

10. Soldiers arrived to watch over the city and maintain peace.

11. He was picked up in the early hours of Thursday morning.

Exercise 7.Decide on the best place to put the adverb, A or B, if both are possible, write A/B.

1. We were going to go out, but we ended (A) staying at home and watching the film (B). (up)

2. I want to find (A) who took my bike (B). (out)

3. My files are in a terrible mess. Could you help me sort (A) them (B)? (out)

4. Do you think he’ll carry (A) his promise to buy her a new car (B). (out)

5. I’m really sorry for letting (A) you all (B). (down)

6. I was very busy so I had to put (A) the meeting I had arranged with our American suppliers (B). (off)

7. You shouldn’t believe her. She is always making (A) stories (B). (up)

8. Keep on doing that and you'll end (A) in serious trouble (B). (up)

9. Besides finding a lodging and moving, I had another project I meant to carry (A) in one way or another (B). (out)

10. He made (A) some excuse (B) about the dog eating his homework.(up)

Exercise 8. Before reading Part II of the text, answer these questions:

a) Do you think that Customs is interested in goods only?

b) What are the ways to make Customs’ work more efficient?

Exercise 9. Read the text to check your answers.

PART II

The way in which the major Customs’ responsibilities are discharged varies. For example, if Customs can identify goods, they are best placed to detect and interdict illicit imports and exports. If they look for goods that were not declared, they are also good at rummaging vehicles, craft and containers. If they have access to intelligence, they can use the information not only for revenue purposes. The principles of Customs work are eminently flexible. Today, when they track down dangerous material, the tools may have changed, but the attitude – being curious about anything new – is the same.



To many it would seem that Customs is interested in goods only. There is the notion, often prevailing in transition countries that Customs looks after goods and another agency after people. This makes a lot of sense – in theory, but what can often result is that, in order to detect illegal immigrants, immigration authorities may also want to look at vehicles, and the next step is to look at the goods which the vehicles carry. Unless carefully managed, the end result is at best a duplication of effort and controls.

Customs can collect, at no extra cost, everything that is due on goods and vehicles crossing the border. Customs use the same assessment and collection mechanisms for whatever duty is collected, as these are typically based on:

(i) the value of the goods,

(ii) their characteristics, and

(iii) the characteristics of the means of transport.

This makes Customs a very cost-effective agency.





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