Assistance system, automatic devices, braking system, carriage, cost-efficient, crash, decoration, dispatch, entrances, fare, fire protection, island passenger platforms, metro stations, network, operational speed, passages, public transportation, right hand side, rush hours, safety, sliding door, staff, side tunnels, sign, sliding steps, terminal platforms, ticket inspectors, top up cards, total length, touch screen, traffic capacity, tunnel paths, unstable soil, vending machines.
1. The first ideas to construct an underground railway in St Petersburg appeared in 1899, but the first metro line was opened only in 1955. Since then the (сеть) of the St Petersburg's Metro has grown to five numbered metro lines (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) with a (общая длина) of 113.5 km and an average of 1.9 km between its 67 stations. It is served round the clock by a (служебный персонал) of 12,000 people.
2. The geological conditions made the builders reconsider the decision to follow the Moscow metro model. They came across gigantic boulders and the (неустойчивый грунт) (swamp) along the (трасса тоннеля). As they had to cross the Neva River four times, most stations had to be built very deep. Most of them are 30-84 m deep. Admiralteyskaya station by the architect A. Konstantinov, being one of the deepest in the world, is located at a depth of 86 m. Its (отделка интерьера) is devoted to the marine theme that is traditional for this city.
3. The metro is a major cultural and historical landmark in St Petersburg. The (входы) to Metro are marked by an exterior sign with the blue logo "M" on top. It became recognized as one of the best in the world, because of its (пропускная способность), cleanness and architecture. While the older (станции метрополитена) are richly and elegantly decorated with marble of various colours, bronze, mosaics, bas-reliefs, polished granite, stainless steel, glass and sculptures, the newer ones show a more functional design. The decoration of each station is according to the history of its place.
4. The St Petersburg’s metro has five colour-coded (red, yellow, blue, green, violet) lines. (Концевые станции) of the Petrogradskaya line are (платформы островного типа) enclosed and separated from the (боковые тоннели) by special walls with openings that are closed by pneumatic steel doors looking like elevator doors. The openings are operated by (автоматическое устройство) and coincide with the train-set doors. They provide a perfect (безопасность) for passengers by opening simultaneously with the doors of the arriving train-set, and by closing before the train-set leaves.
5. Apart from being so unique and impressive, the St Petersburg Metro is the 12-th busiest in the world. The average (рабочая скорость) is over 40 km/h and the maximum allowed speed is 75 km/h. It is the most convenient mode of public transportation though the train-sets are overcrowded during (часы пик). During the day, 3,500 train-sets run almost every 2-3 minutes, and are always punctual. The depots (отправлять) their train-sets to stations at 5:45 a.m. until 00:20 a.m. The (переходы) between the stations close at 00:15 a.m. in order passengers could catch the last train in the line that starts its way at midnight. During special occasions, for instance, the Scarlet Sails at the White Night festival or the New Year's Eve party, the metro is not closed until 2 am, and opens its stations at 4 am on January 1st.
6. The ticket (стоимость проезда) in the St Petersburg’s metro is fixed. To take the metro, passengers will always be paying the same fare, no matter how far they ride. It makes the metro an efficient,low-cost, fast travelling in the city and the best option compared to other (общественный транспорт). A system of tokens ("zheton") is still used. Passengers can buy the metro tokens from the cashier windows or (автоматы) operating upstairs in metro station vestibule.
7. If passengers want to buy or (пополнить карту) they use the new computerized (сенсорный экран) vending machines. These machines allow passengers to pay with different denominations of note or coin and to choose the number of tokens they require. To get to the train-sets, passengers insert their tokens into the slot of the ticket collection turnstiles, go through the barrier, and go down by escalator. Besides the tokens, passengers may buy an electronic pass for as many rides as they want.
8. (Контролеры) and policemen standing near the barriers watch the people flow and see that passengers observe the rules of safe transportation and metro etiquette. People should walk along metro passages on the (справа). They should stand on the right using the escalators and leave the left side clear for people who are in a hurry to catch the train. Young people should offer seats to the disabled, elderly passengers and people with small children. When a train arrives and opens the doors, passengers on the platform should not barge into the cars, but wait at the sides of the (раздвижная дверь) until people get out.
9. All of the metro maps, tourist information and metro (указатели) are both in Russian and English, but the names of the metro stations are announced in Russian only. If foreign passengers are wondering where they are, they can always look at the maps in each metro station and inside every (вагон).
10. Nearly 70 km of new metro lines to be built in Moscow attract attention of large foreign companies including Siemens and Hyundai. The company that could gain contracts will be chosen after a tender. Siemens has filed bids to supply an environmentally friendly and (рентабельный) metro train model Inspiro that could meet the needs of the metro's growing passenger traffic and the European (противопожарная защита) and (авария) requirements. The train has driver cabs on both ends so it can run in both directions at a speed of 90km/h. Inspiro can use conventional or driver-free operation and an optional driver (система оказания помощи). It is equipped with an electrodynamic (тормозная система) for reducing the noise. The train accommodates 256 seats and gives space to carry 1,194 people who will travel by standing using special handholds. Each of six cars has (движущиеся ступени) providing easy entry and exit for people with restricted mobility.