double arrow


Globalisation is the growth and enactment of world culture. Since at least the middle of the nineteenth century, a rationalised world institutional and cultural order has crystallised that consists of universally applicable models that shape states, organisations, and individual identities. Conceptions of progress, sovereignty, rights, and the like, have acquired great authority. Af­ter World War II international life gained a cultural structure. States at very different economic levels adopted common precepts and established com­mon institutions. Far from being the prime movers on the international scene, states derived much of their structure and authority from being em­bedded in a larger system, a world polity consisting of common legitimating models. But states are not the only globally enacted model. More and more organisations, from scientific associations to feminist groups, from standard-setting bodies to environmental movements, helped to elaborate and imple­ment this common world culture.

By the end of the twentieth century, world culture became the constitutive element in world society. But it cannot claim global consensus; regions differ, for example, in their interpretation of core notions such as individual rights. Nor is world culture free from contradiction; it contains values such as free­dom and equality that are necessarily in tension. Enacting global models will not lead to a completely homogeneous world, if only because institutionalisation under different conditions will produce significant local variation. World culture actually produces new conflicts, for when many believe they live in one world under universally valid principles, they become critical of state ac­tions that deviate from global norms. Since the state of the world is always bound to fall short of high global standards, world culture actually encourages the discovery of new social problems. But the world-wide recognition of problems, ranging from global warming to corruption, is a sign of world culture’s current strength. In a diverse, conflictual, and decentralized world, it provides common models for thinking and acting.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. Why has globalisation acquired great authority?

2. Why is it important for different states to be em­bedded in a larger system, a world polity consisting of common legitimating models?

3. What happened to the world culture by the end of the twentieth century?

4. Why do regions differ in their interpretation of core notions?

5. How do you understand the notion “homogeneous world”?

6. Why are new conflicts possible?

7. How can new social problems be solved in the global world?

3. Find English equivalents in the text:

Всемирная культура; приобрести огромную важность; концепция прогресса; универсальные принципы; основная движущая сила; мировая арена; модель законности; всемирное государство; местные отличия; свободный от противоречий; однородный мир; всеобщее согласие; отклоняться от всемирных норм.

4. Match the columns:

1. The … was not in his favour and he was sentenced a) endurance

to death.

2. Who will … as President? b) took it into account

3. The Prime Minister showed remarkable powers of… c) emergency

4. The military junta came to power as a result of a … d) provides

5. Brevity is a … characteristic of the author’s style. e) applicants

6. He is not very … of criticism. f) resembles

7. This fire extinguisher is to be used only in an … g) tolerant

8. The Constitution … for equal rights for men and h) judgement


9. The … are required to fill in all the papers. i) in effect

10. The girl … her father very much. j) distinguishing

11. This law has been … for a few months but k) succeed

mass media have made no comments yet.

12. The witness gave his evidence at the trial and l) coup d’etat

the jury… .

5. Translate the text into English in writing:

Новые проблемы и новые надежды были характерны для конца XX века. Угроза ядерной и экологической катастроф, экономическая отсталость стран «третьего» мира, акты международного терроризма, увеличение числа локальных войн - и это лишь далеко не полный спи­сок «вызовов» мировому сообществу. Одновременно происходили подписание многочисленных договоров в области разоружения, шли поиски решений различных региональных конфликтов, осуществля­лось развитие сотрудничества в области науки и культуры, происходил

рост роли и значения антивоенных, демократических, общественных движений. Становление взаимозависимого целостного мира требует от человечества нового решения вопросов, что, несомненно, повышает значение международного права и роль внешней политики отдельных государств на международной арене. В целостном мире внешняя поли­тика государств и международное право всегда взаимодействуют и влияют друг на друга. Международное право и международные орга­низации являются регуляторами как международной жизни, так и внешней политики государств. Ядром всей системы международного права является общее международное право. Многие общечеловече­ские ценности уже нашли свое нормативное воплощение в основных принципах международного права, которые заключаются в праве наро­дов на самоопределение, запрещении обращаться к силе или угрозе ее применения, вмешиваться во внутренние дела государств. Прочный правопорядок в мире возможен в случае признания примата междуна­родного права в политике.

6. Read and translate Text 2:

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