If all the works carried out by the great French researcher Pasteur were divided into three groups they would form three great discoveries.
The first one might be formulated thus: "Each fermentation is produced by the development of a particular microbe."
The second one might be given this formula: "Each infectious disease is produced by the development of a particular microbe within the human organism."
The third one might be the following: "The microbe of an infectious disease, under certain conditions, is attenuated1 in its pathogenic activity; from a microbe it becomes a vaccine."
In 1878 while delivering his lecture on the theory of microbes at the Academy of Sciences in Paris Pasteur said that if he were a surgeon, who knew of the dangers produced by microbes existing on the surface of every object, particularly in hospitals, not only should he use clean instruments, but after washing his hands with the greatest care, he would employ only those bandages and charpie2 which had been heated to a temperature of 130° or 150°C.
If he employed the water he would heat it to a temperature of 110° or 120°C, since observation had shown the clearest water to contain still greater number of microbes.
Had those principles of asepsis, on which Pasteur insisted, not been strictly followed in medicine thousands and thousands of human lives would have been lost because of sepsis.
1. to attenuate [a'tenjueit]—ослаблять, разбавлять
2. charpie l'Japi]—карпия, льняные нитки для перевязки ран
I. Запомните чтение следующих слов. Найдите их перевод ниже: diphtheria [dif,0iaria],prostration [pras'treijan],tonsil f'tonsi],larynx
['laerrjks], toxemia [tok'simia], delirium [di'liriam], disintegrate [dis'intigreit]
отравление крови (заражение крови); прострация, изнеможение; бред; бредовое состояние; распадаться; дифтерит миндалевидная железа; гортань
II.Выучите следующие слова: backache ['baekeik] п боль в спине smear ['smia] п мазок
culture ['kAltja] п посев; выращивание бактерий extreme [iks'tn:m]а крайний; чрезвычайный convalescence [,konva'lesns] п выздоровление
fatal ['feitl] а летальный, смертельный
outcome ['autk/vm] n исход
III. 1. Прочтите текст С.2. Найдите и переведите предложения, содержащие: а) сослагательное наклонение; б) сложное дополнение; в) сложное подлежащее; г) самостоятельный причастный оборот. 3. Выпишите английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
температура была непостоянной, пульс был неправильный, незначительно увеличенное количество, мазок был взят на посев, налеты на миндалинах, очищение горла
4. Перескажите текст от лица врача:
The patient was a seven-year-old girl. Her fever was irregular and considerably elevated. The general symptoms, such as headache and backache were not severe, but her pulse was weak and irregular. The urinalysis revealed protein to be present in a slightly increased amount.
The patient's throat being examined, the physician noticed it be coated with a membrane. To make an adequate diagnosis the smear was taken for culture which revealed diphtheria bacilli. If diphtheria bacilli had not been revealed in the smear the doctor might have doubted the diagnosis.
The disease having progressed, prostration became marked. The membranes which had been seen at first on the tonsils were spreading to the pharynx and larynx.
The patient received an adequate treatment with diphtheria antitoxin which contributed to the clearing up of the throat. Had the antitoxin treatment not been employed so soon toxemia would have been intense and delirium and prostration extreme or heart failure, respiratory paralysis or bronco-pneumonia might have developed.
After four or five days the membrane which had been extending over the tonsils, pharynx, and larynx began to loosen (зд. разрыхляться) and disintegrate. In 10 days convalescence was noted to have advanced favourably and the danger of a fatal outcome was considered to have been completely eliminated.
IV. * Выберите предложения в сослагательном наклонении:
1. The bacteriologist was sure that the blood smear would reveal cocci. 2. If it were a severe form of diphtheria it would be characterized by general prostration, cardiac depression and even anaemia. 3. The physician did not doubt that the smear culture would reveal diphtheria bacilli. 4. Had the temperature been accompanied by vomiting, headache and chills the diagnosis of diphtheria would have been possible. 5. Subcutaneous injections of antibiotics should be given regularly lest the disease progressed.
V. Переведите, употребив сослагательное наклонение (письменно):
1. На вашем месте я назначил бы больному повторный анализ. 2. Врач настаивал, чтобы больной наблюдался по поводу отдаленных результатов в течение года. 3. У больного были такие желтые склеры, как будто бы он болел желтухой.
VI. Пользуясь ключевыми словами, напишите историю болезни:
to be admitted to the hospital, to complain of, on physical examination, symptoms, to reveal, laboratory findings, antitoxin treatment, the course of the disease, convalescence