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Forest management unit (FMU), (Rus. Leskhoz)


the basic element of the state management of forestry in the Russian Federation. Legal person. Subordinated to authorized bodies of the state forest management of the Federation’s members.

Forest mature stand

forest standthat has reached the fixed cutting age.

Forest maturing stand

forest stand of one or two age classes preceding the cutting age.

Forest nurseries

plots of forest lands used for growing planting material (seedlings and transplants) for creating forest cultures.

Forest plantations

plots of forestlands used for growing tree and shrub species with the purpose of obtaining valuable timber assortments (plantations of maple, willow, cork tree, oaks, etc.).

Forest products

any raw material yielded by a forest, including timber, timber products and other forest materials (such as rock, stone, clay, sand, gravel).

Forest stand

totality of living treesthat are the basic component of forest.

Forest type

a group of plants dominated by trees which has a general similarity in species composition and character; a forest containing specific types or species of trees, native forests are usually classified into one of the following types: coniferous, temperate (moist and dry eucalypt, deciduous), tropical (rainforest, moist deciduous, mangrove).

Forester

person involved and trained inforestry and forest management, usually with a degree in forest science.

Forestry

the management of forests for the benefit of the community; the theory and practice of the management of forests for whatever purpose the owner requires and the sustainable utilisation of its products and services; it involves the practical application of scientific, economic and social principles to the management of a forest estate for specific objectives, including the provision of wood products, wildlife habitat, water resources, recreational opportunities, or other requirements above or in combination; is not limited to managing the existing forest estate; includes the reforestation (or afforestation) of non-forested or cleared land.




Forwarder

rubber tyred vehicle that loads felled logs on to a trailer to remove them from the forest.

Genus

a class or kind of living things; a group of species very similar to one another and closely related; a sub-division of a family or subfamily.

Gymnosperms

non-flowering plants; seeds enclosed in a cone.

50. Habitat

the native environment where an animal or plant naturally lives or grows.

Hardwood

timber from broad-leaved, flowering trees (angiosperms), short fibered woods, for example eucalyptus

Harvesting

the felling of trees, either as a group selection operation or a thinning or a clearfelling operation.

Harvesting plan

a detailed plan of a forest area to be logged, describing the forest area and planned operations, including details of flora and fauna species, cultural heritage sites, soil types, drainage lines, forest types and recreation sites in the area and environmental considerations.

Leaf

part of a plant which grows from the stem, makes up the plant’s foliage; photosynthetic organ.

Leaf litter

mixture of fallen and dead plant material on the forest floor, made up of leaves, bark, stems and branches.

Log

a portion of cut tree trunk or branch

Loggging

The process of cutting down trees for timber.

Monoculture

one type (species) of plant cultivated in an area, for example, plantations of a single species of tree.

Old growth forest

an unlogged area of forest which is ecologically mature and characterised by relatively large old trees with extensive hollows, no significant increase in biomass, stable nutrient cycle, high litter levels, slow rates of change in composition, structure and function; forest in which the upper stratum is ecologically mature and has been subjected to negligible unnatural disturbance such as logging, road building and clearing.

Open forest

a forest with a canopy cover of between 30 and 70 per cent; the most abundant forest form in New South Wales.

Open woodland

lightly wooded country, with tree canopy covering an average of less than 10 per cent of the area.

Overmature trees

trees which are well beyond the age of full development.

63. Plantation

a planted forest of either native or exotic species.

Post-logging burning

a forest management technique practiced to remove logging debris which could fuel a bushfire it also stimulates regeneration in the logged area.

Pulpwood

fiber processed to make paper. ‘Pulp’ logs are processed into wood chips or pulp for wood based panels, paper and paper products.



Rainforest

a dense evergreen forest which grows in tropical and temperate areas of high humidity with heavy rainfall occurring throughout the year.

Reforestation

replanting of a forest on cleared or destroyed forest areas.

Regeneration

new growth, naturally or as a result of management practices, such as natural regeneration from seed fall, copice or lignotuber growth or artificially from sowing seed on prepared seedbeds or planting stock raised from local, regional or imported sources.

Regrowth

a forest stand established by natural regeneration after logging.

Rotation

the cycle of a plantation from planting of one stand (group of trees), through the growth period to final harvesting.

Root

the part of a plant which grows in soil.

Sawlog

a log considered suitable in size and quality for producing sawn timber, veneer, poles or sleepers

Seed

the viable part of a plant from which a new plant can grow.

Shrub

a woody plant smaller than a tree, usually divided into separate stems near the ground.

Silviculture

the science and art of the cultivation of forests; the growing and tending of trees.

Skidder

a rubber tyred tractor for dragging felled logs to a loading area.

Softwood

generally refers to trees of the botanical group gymnosperms, for example conifers; also refers to the softer and longer fibered structure of the wood produced by such trees; does not relate to the texture or density of the timber.

Species

the lowest taxonomic classification in use; a group of organisms with some identifiable common characteristics, they are capable of reproducing and producing fertile offspring.

Stand

a group (or cluster) of upright trees.

Stem

part of a plant; a stalk which supports a leaf, flower or fruit.

Thinning

the removal of poorer and mature trees from a forest to improve the growth, hygiene or composition of the remaining trees.

Timber

the general term used to describe sawn wood suitable for building and other purposes.

Tree

a perennial plant having a self-supporting woody stem or trunk.

84. Understorey

the layer of forest vegetation between the overstorey or canopy and the ground layer.

Unforested lands

lands suitable for forest growing, but not occupied by productive trees.

Wildfire

a grass or bush fire which burns out of control; fire which destroys areas of grassland or bush and can destroy buildings and cause the death of vegetation, animals and humans.



Wood

the hard, fibrous inner part of tree trunks, branches and stems; tissue that lies underneath the bark of a plant; a source of timber.

88. Woodlandplant communities dominated by trees whose crowns shade less than 30 per cent of the ground.

Yield

the amount of material that may be removed annually or periodically from a forest.

 

 







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