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Active Vocabulary

1. Accomplish (v) – совершать, выполнять 11. Increase (v) – возрастать, увеличивать
2. Area (n) – область, участок 12. Means (n) – средство; способ
3. Available (adj) – доступный; имеющийся в распоряжении 13. Process (n) – обрабатывать
4. Bus (n) – шина; канал 14. Provide (v) – предоставлять; обеспечивать
5. Capacity (n) – ёмкость; пропускная способность 15. Pulse (n) – импульс
6.Circuit (n) – схема; цепь; контур 16. Rate (n) – скорость; частота
7. Clock/computer clock (n) – тактовый генератор 17. Resolution (n) – разрешение, разрешающая способность
8. Determine (v) – обусловливать 18. Retrieve (v) – извлекать (хранимую) информацию
9. Digital (adj) – цифровой; дискретный 19. Transfer (v) – передавать; пересылать
10. Execute (v) – осуществлять, выполнять 20. Via (prep) – посредством (ч-л.), с помощью

Text A: Computer Information System Hardware

Hardware includes any machinery (now digital) that assists in the input, processing, storage and output activities of an information system. The distinguishing feature of a computer is its ability to store its own instructions. This ability makes it possible for a computer to perform many operations: to repeat its operations, store the results of its calculations for later use, make logical decisions, compare results with other data, and on the basis of such comparisons change the series of operation it performs. The computer can process, store, and retrieve data without human intervention.

Computer system hardware includes the central processing unit (CPU), input devices, output devices, communications devices, primary and secondary storage devices. Each central processing unit (CPU) includes: the arithmetic/logic unit, the control unit, the register areas, basic I/O devices. Since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons. The control unit sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers, primary storage, secondary storage and various output devices. Registers are high-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before, during and after execution by the CPU. Primary storage, also called main memory or just memory, holds program instructions and data immediately before or immediately after the registers. The various circuits processing data in the computer’s interior must operate in a highly synchronized manner; this is accomplished by controlling them with a very stable oscillator, which acts as the computer’s “clock”. The CPU produces a series of electronic pulses at a predetermined rate, called the clock speed, which affects machine cycle time. Clock speed is measured in megahertz, where one hertz means one cycle or pulse per second. Computer clock rates may range from several million cycles per second to several hundred million or even a billion cycles per second.

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