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Climate classification

There are several ways to classify climates into similar regimes. Originally, climes were defined in Ancient Greece to describe the weather depending upon a location's latitude. Modern climate classification methods can be broadly divided into genetic methods, which focus on the causes of climate, and empiric methods, which focus on the effects of climate. Examples of genetic classification include methods based on the relative frequency of different air mass types or locations within synoptic weather disturbances. Examples of empiric classifications include climate zones defined by plant hardiness, evapotranspiration, or more generally the Köppen climate classification which was originally designed to identify the climates associated with certain biomes. A common shortcoming of these classification schemes is that they produce distinct boundaries between the zones they define, rather than the gradual transition of climate properties more common in nature.

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

ежегодные колебания; средний период; промежуток времени; близость океана и гор; тектоника плит; океанический бассейн; глобальное потепление и похолодание; поглощение солнечного тепла; влагоудержание; типы воздушных масс; эвапотранспирация.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. The standard averaging period of climate is …

2. Climate is …, weather is … .

3. The density and type of vegetation coverage affects …

4. Examples of genetic classification include methods based on …

5. Examples of empiric classifications include …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What is climate?

2. What is the difference between climate and weather?

3. What are the constant variables that determine climate?

4. What are the two main methods of modern climate classification?

5. What is the Köppen climate classification associated with?

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