|residence||постоянное место жительства|
|recreation||отдых, восстановление сил|
|on holiday||в отпуске|
|facilities||удобства, средства обслуживания, оборудование|
|original expenditures||запланированные необходимые расходы|
|stay in a hotel||остановиться в гостинице|
|sociocultural benefit||социально-культурное благо|
|local crafts people||местные ремесленники|
Tourism is a relatively new phenomenon in the world. Since being away from home is a necessary component of tourism, its development as a mass industry depended on modern means of rapid and inexpensive transportation. Tourism as we know it today began with the building of the railroads in the 19th century.
Tourism may be defined as the science, art and business of attracting and transporting people, accommodating them, and catering to their needs and wants. It is the world’s largest industry. Tourism has been one of the fastest growing industries in recent years. The growth rate of tourism has generally exceeded the growth rate for the world-wide economy.
In spite of its rapid growth, it is not easy to define tourism. Tourism necessarily involves travel; a tourist is usually defined as a person who is visiting some place other than his usual residence for more than 24 hours. A tourist is distinguished by the length of his trip from an excursionist, who is away from his usual residence for less than 24 hours, or a weekend.
The purpose of travel must also enter into the definition of tourism. Many people travel entirely for the purpose of recreation or pleasure; they are people on holiday. Other people travel for reasons of health. Other people travel to visit friends or relatives, a reason that has become more important because of increased mobility throughout the world. Still others travel in order to educate themselves because travel is broadening.
All of these people are generally considered tourists since the primary reason for their trips is recreation. Most tourist statistics also include people who are travelling on business. Among them are businessmen and government officials on specific missions, as well as people attending meetings or conventions. Many people among those travelling on business often combine pleasure with their work. They also use the same transportation, accommodations, and catering facilities as the holiday tourists.
In addition to their original expenditures, tourist produce secondary impacts on local economy. When a tourist spends money to travel, to stay in a hotel, or to eat in a restaurant, that money is recycled by these businesses to purchase more goods, thereby generating further use of the money. In addition, employees of businesses who serve tourists spend a higher proportion of their money locally on various goods and services.
However, tourism results not only in sociocultural benefits but also in problems. Imagine the feelings of an employee in a developing country who earns perhaps $5 per day when he or she sees wealthy tourist haunting money, jewellery, and a lifestyle not obtainable. Another example might be nude female tourists sunbathing in a Moslem country. Critics argue that, at best, tourism dilutes the culture of a country by imposing the mass tourism market.
On the other hand, proponents of the sociocultural benefits of tourism are able to point out that tourism is a clean and green industry, that most of hotels are built with concern for environment and use local crafts people, designers, and materials.