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SEQUENCE OF TENSES




(СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН)

  1. Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в одном из настоящих времен, то сказуемое придаточного предложения может быть выражено глаголом в любом времени, которое требуется по смыслу. 2. Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в одном из прошедших времен, то глагол дополнительного придаточного предложения должен быть употреблен также в одном из прошедших времен. 3. Косвенная речь строится в виде дополнительного придаточного предложения, введенного союзм that. При переводе предложений из прямой речи в косвенную следует сдвигать временные формы следующим образом: Present Simple > Past Simple Present Continuous > Past Continuous Present Perfect > Past Perfect Past Simple > Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous > Past Perfect Continuous Past Continuous > Past Perfect Continuos (Past Continuous) Will (Future) > would (Future-in-the-Past) 4. При переводе предложений в косвенную речь следует заменять обстоятельства времени и местоимения: This > that Yesterday > the day before (the previous day) These > those …ago > …before Here > there Last year > the year before Now > then Last > the…before (the previous) Today > that day Tomorrow > the next (the following) day Next > the next (the following) in… > …later 5. Косвенный вопрос имеет порядок слов утвердительного предложения. Косвенный вопрос без вопросительного слова вводится союзами if или whether. (He asked us if we were busy.) Если вопрос в прямой речи начинается с вопросительного слова, то оно сохраняется в косвенной речи. (He asked me where I was calling from.) 6. Утвердительная форма повелительного наклонения передается в косвенной речи простым инфинитивом, отрицательная форма – отрицательной формой инфинитива. (He told me to send the letter. He told me not to send the fax.)

1. Поставьте глаголы главного предложения в Past Simple и сделайте соответствующие изменения в придаточных предложениях. Предложения переведите.

1. He doesn’t know that the Parties introduced additions into the contract. 2. Are you sure that he will open a letter of credit tomorrow? 3. He says that he has been working under pressure lately. 4. I wonder where he is flying next week. 5. I know that you have received a favourable offer this week. 6. I think they were discussing the main points of the agreement at that time. 7. We expect that the service life of the equipment will be extended in the near future. 8. We know that the contract has already been signed. 9. He says that she is drawing up the invoice now. 10. He asks us how long they have been discharging the vessel. 11. We hope that Cover Letters and Resumes will have been submitted by October, 1. 12. The Manager says that they will be fired if they are not efficient. 13. I don'’ know if they have taken courses in Marketing. 14. They say that they were studying our advertising materials then. 15. We know that the taxes are paid every month.




2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующемся времени, соблюдая согласование времен. Предложения переведите.

1.We didn’t know that the firm (to reduce) the price. 2. He asked me what job I (to offer). 3. He said that he already (to effect) payment. 4. The Manager said that he (can) offer me the equivalent of $500 for the experimental period. 5. We are sure that the partners (to meet) the deadline. 6. The trainee said that he (to do) his best to make the order properly. 7. The receiving party informed us that a double room already (to reserve) for us. 8. The manager said that it (to be) difficult to make a decision. 9. We are sure that the partners (to give) us a square deal. 10. We knew that our equipment (to correspond) to the high technical level. 12. She asked me when we (to plan) to launch the goods to the market. 13. We said that we (to cover) the losses at our expense a week before. 14. We didn’t know that the containers (to fasten) in the hold then. 15. The partners asked us what our payment terms (to be). 16. We hoped that you (to settle) the remainder by the end of the week. 17. The manager asked me (not to be) late for the appointment. 18. We were sure that that equipment (to outperform) similar systems. 19. We know that they (to have) good reports from the customers. 20. They asked us who (to meet) the authorized representatives.



3. Найдите и исправьте ошибку в предложениях.

1. I didn’t know that the delivery was delayed the previous week. 2. We asked the partners when would the goods be examined. 3. The partners ate sure that we wouldn’t let them down. 4. We were told that shipping documents have already been checked. 5. The Manager ordered us make all necessary preparations for exhibition immediately. 6. I didn’t understand why the producers suspend the output of products. 7. The trainee promised the he will correct all the mistakes in calculations as soon as possible. 8. The Customer said that he had been still waiting for the order. 9. The partners said that the defect resulted from the improper packing. 10. We were sure that they would have been granted exclusive rights. 11. They promised that they will reimburse all the expenses. 12. We saw that the marking wasn’t made in indelible paint. 13. Ask him what is the destination. 14. They said that they have already registered their firm. 15. We asked the partners why they suffered losses. 16. Who told you that they are not reliable? 17. We were informed that the customer had been forced the price. 18. We were sure that the claim would meet. 19. The partners promised that they will provide the advanced technology. 20. We didn’t know that the negotiations were held at that time.

Выполните лексико–грамматический тестю

1. We didn't see that they _____ the performance of their equipment.

a) have improved b) had improved c) improved d) improve

2. I don't understand why the reservation ______.

a) aren’t confirmed b) hadn’t been confirmed c) wasn't confirmed d) didn’t confirm

3. I knew that there ____ no limitations as to currency.

a) were b) are c) have been d) will be

4. He said that the receiving party ______ care of the exit visa.

a) will take b) would take c) would have take d) has taken

5. We asked the partner why the additions into the contract _____.

a) hadn't been introduced b) hadn’t introduced c) weren’t introduced d) haven’t been introduced

6. The manager confirmed that the fax ______ two hours later.

a) will be sent b) would have been sent c) would be sent d) would send

7. They said that they ______ up the draft of the agreement then.

a) were drawing b) are drawing c) drew d) had drawn

8. We asked the Executive Manager what the final price _____ on?

a) depends b) depended c) depend d) was depending

9. They asked me what goods – liable to duty.

a) are b) were c) will be d) have been

10. The secretary said that she ______ an appointment for Wednesday.

a) will make b) would have made c) will have made d) would make

11. I don't know how long she ______ the computer.

a) has been operating b) had been operating c) has operated d) operated

12. We wondered if our flight ______.

a) was announced b) had been announced c) have been announced d) had announced

13. They told us that they ____ the maintenance the whole previous evening.

a) were negotiating b) negotiated c) had negotiated d) have been negotiated

14. Do you know who ____ the position of a Sales Manager?

a) hold b) held c) has held d) holds

15. He said that the goods _____ the next week.

a) were going to be shipped b) were going to ship c) shipped d) would ship

16. The Executive Manager says the he ____ his staff to the new Export-Import Manager.

a) haven’t introduced b) hasn't introduced c) hadn’t introduced d) wasn’t introduced

17. I wondered if that equipment ______.

a) is computerized b) has been computerized c) computerized d) was computerized

18. The Personnel Manager said that the application form ____ properly.

a) hadn't been filled b) hasn’t been filled c) isn’t filled d) hadn’t filled

19. I didn't know that things for personal needs _____ duty free.

a) are b) were c) is d) had been

20. It was announced that our flight _____ at Gate 9.

a) is boarding b) had been boarding c) was boarding d) has been boarding

21. They asked us how long it was since he ____ that position.

a) took b) had taken c) was taking d) has taken

22. I wonder what the intervals between train arrivals ___.

a)were b) are c) have been d) had been

23. They said that they _____ through our complete catalogues at that time.

a) were looking b) are looking c) looked d) were looked

24. We were informed that the next negotiations _____ a week later.

a) were going to conduct b) were going to be conducted c) were conducting d) had conducted

25. They wondered how often the duties _____.

a) are paid b) paid c) were paid d) have been paid

26. I don't know if they ____ down to business.

a) have got b) had got c) got were got

27. They said that their company was considered competitive and it ___ advanced technology.

a) provides b) has provided c) had provided d) had been provided

28. Did you ask them how long it ______ them to place a large order with that firm?

a) took b) takes c) had taken d) was taken

29. I didn't know that those goods ______ in great demand in England.

a) are b) were c) had been d) have been

30. I was told that they _____ of the goods at their option.

a) dispose b) are disposing c) were disposed d) disposed

31. We didn’t know why the partners _____ to cooperate with us.

a) have refused b) were refused c) had refused d) were refusing

32. The Seller said that they still ______for the payment.

a) are waiting b) waited c) were waiting d) had been waiting

33. We understood that if we ______the sum of the contract we would get a discount.

a) raise b) raised c) had raised d) would raise

34. They said that their equipment _____ to the high technical level.

a) correspond b) was corresponded c) corresponded d) was corresponding

35. We didn’t know that they ______ to the world market for a month.

a) were promoting b) had been promoting c) have been promoting d) had promoted

36. The partners told us that they ______ a satisfactory market for their goods in our country.

a) found b) find c) had found were found

37. Who asked you ______in cash?

a) not pay b) not to pay c) to not pay d) don’

38. She said that she ______the idea of their range of goods.

a) didn’t have b) hadn’t c) doesn’t have d) hasn’t

39. We hope that our experience _____ of service to you.

a) would be b) would have been c) will be d) will have been

40. We were glad that we _____ that favourable agreement.

a) conclude b) had concluded c) concluded d) were concluded

41. The partners advised us _____ the goods in two lots.

a) deliver b) delivered c) to deliver d) delivering

42. He asked us what catalogue _____ then.

a) was published b) was being published c) published d)is published

43. We doubted that the partners ______the guarantee period.

a) have prolonged b) prolonged c) had prolonged d) were prolonged

44. I didn’t know that she ____ a difficult person to get hold of.

a) is b) was c) has been d) had been

45. He said that there _____ great demand for their products in Europe.

a) were b) is c) are d) was

46. We recommended them _____ a concession.

a) not to make b) not make c) don’t make d) to not make

47. They said that they _____ the maintenance the whole morning.

a) have been discussing b) have discussed c) were discussing d) had discussed

48. They said that the customers ______ only part payment.

a) effected b) were effecting c) had effected d) have effected

49. We were informed that the objectives of the campaign already _____.

a) have been determined b) are determined c) had determined d) had been determined

50. He promised that he ____ &200 on Mr. Brown at 30 days sight.

a) would draw b) will draw c) drew d) had drawn





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