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Вариант I

1. Law includes not only the rules of conduct but also the means for enforcing those rules. Any set of rules would be useless without mechanism for enforcement.

2. Civil law is enforced through the courts at the re­quest of the injured party, who is assisted by a pri­vate lawyer. Criminal law is enforced through the courts by the prosecuting attorney, who is aided by the police.

3. In civil actions, the plaintiff brings suit against the defendant. In criminal actions, the prosecution (the state) brings action against the defendant (the ac­cused).

Вариант II

1. A criminal action usually begins with an arraign­ment. The defendant must plead guilty or not guilty to the charges.

2. A civil action is generally begun by the plaintiff fil­ing a complaint. A process server then delivers a sum­mons and copy of the complaint to the defendant. The defendant must answer the complaint or lose the case by default.

3. Members of a trial jury should be impartial, should not be biased or prejudiced, and should vote honestly and fairly in reaching a verdict.

Вариант III

1. Evidence usually consists of testimony, but it may include documents, objects, pictures, etc.

2. Persons who have knowledge of the facts in a case may be ordered by subpoena to appear in court as witnesses and to give testimony.

3. Most trials are concluded with judgment by the trial court. However, a judgment may ordinarily be ap­pealed to a higher court. The higher court will either affirm or (if there was a serious error of law in the trial) reverse the decision or send the case back to the court from which it came to have further action tak­en on it there.

Установите соответствие преступников с определениями правонарушений:

Match the name of a criminal with the suitable definition of the offence:

Вариант I

a. member of a criminal group

b. a soldier who runs away from the army

c. anyone who breaks the law

d. attacks and robs people in the street

e. breaks into houses or other buildings to steal

f. buys and sells drugs illegally

1. a burglar

2. a drug dealer

3. a forger

4. a gangster

5. a hijacker

6. a hooligan

7. a kidnapper

8. a mugger

9. a pickpocket

10. a murderer

11. a robber

12. a shop-lifter

13. a smuggler

14. a spy

15. a terrorist

16. a thief

17. a traitor

18. a vandal

19. an accomplice

20. an arsonist

21. an assassin

22. an offender

Вариант II

g. causes damage or disturbance in public places

h. deliberately causes damage to property

i. gets secret information from another country

j. helps a criminal in a criminal act

k. kills someone

1. makes counterfeit (false) money or signatures

m. marries illegally, being married already

1. a burglar

2. a drug dealer

3. a forger

4. a gangster

5. a hijacker

6. a hooligan

7. a kidnapper

8. a mugger

9. a pickpocket

10. a murderer

11. a robber

12. a shop-lifter

13. a smuggler

14. a spy

15. a terrorist

16. a thief

17. a traitor

18. a vandal

19. an accomplice

20. an arsonist

21. an assassin

22. an offender

Вариант III

n. murders for political reasons or a reward

o. illegally sets fire to someone's house or property

p. someone who steals

q. steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer

r. steals money or things by force from people or places

s. steals things from people's pockets

t. takes away. people by force and demands money for their return

u. takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change course

v. uses violence for political reasons

1. a burglar

2. a drug dealer

3. a forger

4. a gangster

5. a hijacker

6. a hooligan

7. a kidnapper

8. a mugger

9. a pickpocket

10. a murderer

11. a robber

12. a shop-lifter

13. a smuggler

14. a spy

15. a terrorist

16. a thief

17. a traitor

18. a vandal

19. an accomplice

20. an arsonist

21. an assassin

22. an offender


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